Journal of World-Systems Research http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr <p>The <em>Journal of World-Systems Research</em> is the official journal of the <a href="http://www.asapews.org/">Political Economy of the World-System Section </a>of the American Sociological Association. <em>JWSR </em>is an open-access, peer reviewed journal with an interdisciplinary audience of readers from around the world.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ol><li>The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.</li><li>Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.</li><li>The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a <a title="CC-BY" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:<ol type="a"><li>Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;</li></ol>with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.</li><li>The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. 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Revision Description: Removed outdated link. </span></p> jwsr@ciis.edu (Journal of World-Systems Research) e-journals@mail.pitt.edu (OJS Technical Support) Tue, 29 Mar 2022 13:47:48 -0400 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Market for a Public High School Degree http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1012 <p class="AbstractParagraphs">Here, we question the ways in which the preponderance of international students as tuition-paying consumers of public (and private) schools in the core is shifting the model of education, and the vision of citizenship, in the world system. Although significant work has been done to illuminate these dynamics in higher education, we argue that the nascent market at the secondary level is particularly instructive of global trends in late capitalism. A thoughtful consideration of the presence of tuition-paying high school students in U.S., British, Australian, and Canadian public-school systems demands an engagement with the cultural colonization of periphery knowledge systems that accompanies the extraction of all surplus commodified value in service of the idea of development. In the high stakes globalized free market—in which the gap between core and periphery grows ever-larger—core secondary schools become places to attain core credentials, core values, and core belonging. The students’ tuition dollars represent an increasing proportion of underfunded school districts’ revenues in austerity regimes, blurring the line between education as a public good and education as a salable commodity. We empirically demonstrate the dynamics of the market in international secondary education using existing public data, and we explore its contingencies, beneficiaries, and victims. We posit a world system in which commodified children are coerced consumers of core value systems and are credentialed as honorary members of the “haves.” We argue that, in the increasingly zero-sum competitions for artificially scarce resources, inequality drives demand for international secondary school education, which in turn drives inequality.</p> Lana Parker, Natalie Delia Deckard Copyright (c) 2022 Lana Parker, Natalie Delia Deckard https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1012 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:02:59 -0400 Divergent Convergence http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1032 <p class="AbstractParagraphs">This article analyzes the economic convergence of the global South with the global North (GS and GN, respectively) as well as the divergence within the GS between Asia and “the rest” (Latin America and Africa). In order to address these processes, the paper is structured in three parts. In the first part, the fundamentals that support this “divergent convergence” are considered in light of two theoretical perspectives: world-systems analysis (WSA) and Latin American Structuralism (LAS). We take into account the analytical tools of these theoretical perspectives and differentiate the historical, systemic, and top-down approach of WSA (focused on the contributions of Wallerstein and Arrighi) from the historical, structural, and bottom-up perspective of LAS. In the second part, we analyze the convergence of the GS with the GN in terms of economic dynamic, economic dynamism, and control of the accumulation process, as well as the divergence within the GS between Asia and “the rest”. We finally argue the possibility and necessity of complementing WSA and LAS approaches in order to explain these simultaneous processes of “divergent convergence” and to reflect on the challenges for the rest of the GS in facing the consolidation of Asian dominance under Chinese leadership.</p> Víctor Ramiro Fernández, Luciano Moretti, Emilia Ormaechea Copyright (c) 2022 Víctor Ramiro Fernández, Luciano Moretti, Emilia Ormaechea https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1032 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:02:51 -0400 Technological Change before Globalization http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1061 <p>Though the world-systems school has argued that globalization has been a long process over the last five centuries, globalization is often only synonymous with the late twentieth century. Globalization has gained a lot of attention in the context of declining blue-collar job sectors, but the technologies that enabled it had already displaced workers on U.S. railroads. To bridge both schools, railroads are the perfect setting for this study since it’s at the intersection of race, labor, technological changes, and globalization. Mexicans once accounted for ninety percent of track workers in the U.S. Southwest, but after gaining higher wages by the early 1950s, most of their jobs were lost to automation by the 1960s. While faster and larger cargo ships and railroads in recent decades have been synonymous with globalization, the technologies and infrastructure didn’t enable that global process until the 1970s at the earliest. Technological changes eliminated more jobs on the tracks before 1970 than to globalization since. Globalization was not possible without those technological changes.</p> Michael Calderon-Zaks Copyright (c) 2022 Michael Calderon-Zaks https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1061 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:02:41 -0400 For a Revolutionary Feminist World-Systems Analysis http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1065 <p class="AbstractParagraphs">In revolutionary anti-colonial movements, women's involvement has been limited, and their contributions often marginalized or forgotten. This is not only an empirical puzzle in that anti-colonial movements have historically recruited women and furthered feminist discourse while also marginalizing female members, but also a political problem for movements that the lived reality for female participants diverges from the egalitarian philosophies of the movements themselves. In this article, I build on and further develop theories of feminist world-systems analysis, contending that feminist world-systems needs to rethink theories of anti-systemic movements to better include women’s revolutionary roles as active agents in the historical process of colonial independence and decolonization. In so doing, I contend that a revolutionary feminist world-systems analysis is increasingly important to analyze that women’s active roles as revolutionary agents have been sidelined because the movements that they have been a part of have also found themselves co-opted by dominant liberal ideology. This theoretical position is illustrated through an analysis of the published periodicals of the anti-colonial Ghadar Party. Through this empirical case study, I show that Ghadar’s revolutionary potential receded to the background because of its failures to fully include its female members. This case study is then levied to demonstrate how reviving a feminist world-systems analysis can help us better theorize women’s important but under-analyzed role in revolutionary anti-colonial movements.</p> Umaima Miraj Copyright (c) 2022 Umaima Miraj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1065 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:02:32 -0400 Tributary World-Ecologies, Part I http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1066 <p>This essay, in two parts, argues for the centrality of the world-ecology perspective for theorizing the relations, dynamics, and crises of the High Medieval Worlds. Commercialization Theorists view the High Middle Ages as a period of early capitalism, while classical Marxist theorists conceive it as a continuation of feudalism. In contrast to both conceptions, I argue that this era can instead be evaluated on its own terms from the world-ecology perspective. In Part I, I develop two interrelated historical-geographical and theoretical arguments. By employing a comparative world-historical methodology, I first argue that two distinct world-ecologies emerged in the North Sea and the Mediterranean during the High Middle Ages. Second, I define world-ecologies not only in terms of commercial relations, but also of production relations, that is, the mode of appropriation of nature and labor. Next, I focus on the common characteristics of tributary world-ecologies. These two world-ecologies were distinguished by agrarian tributary relations, two-tiered commercial networks, and a multiple state-system. I argue that they expanded due to the unique bundling of climatological upturn, novel production relations, and technological and organizational innovations. I conclude Part I by analyzing the North Sea world-ecology, which has typically served as a model for both Commercialization and Classical Marxist perspectives. While there is no question that both perspectives have their merits, it seems more fruitful to explain the relations and dynamics of the North Sea world by the mutual-conditioning of nature, tributary production, and two-tiered commerce. Second, it is more useful to theorize the North Sea world in relation to the larger tributary worlds, characteristic of the High Middle Ages.</p> Çağrı İdiman Copyright (c) 2022 Çağrı İdiman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1066 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:02:23 -0400 The New Shape of the Global Power-Field (GPF) After the Transformation of the Modern World-System Post-WWII (Part. 2) http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1071 <p class="AbstractParagraphs">This article is a follow-up to a previous essay that mapped the dynamics of the modern world-system theory into what was called a Global Power-Field (GPF) during the colonial era phase of planetary history. It continues this mapping project by exploring the reconfiguration of the field in the postcolonial period. This field of power operated on the practice of ‘objectification’ of asymmetrical relations within its domain. The current essay extends that analysis by further identifying the forms of ‘objectification’ in the field’s contemporary phase. A prominent feature of the current field is the non-locality of its operations; a term signifying the level of dispersion of its vectors of power across the globe. The investigation will conclude with a detailed case study of how this current version of the GPF impacts the Global South by examining Post-Revolutionary Iran’s relations with the West.</p> Omer Awass Copyright (c) 2022 Omer Awass https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1071 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:02:14 -0400 Why Not Default? http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1123 Jerome Roos, Andrej Grubačić Copyright (c) 2022 Jerome Roos, Andrej Grubačić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1123 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:02:05 -0400 Leaning on the BRICS as a Geopolitical Counterweight Leads Only to Faux-Polyarchic, Subimperial “Spalling” http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1124 Patrick Bond Copyright (c) 2022 Patrick Bond https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1124 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:01:50 -0400 Give and Take http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1125 Patricia Ward Copyright (c) 2022 Patricia Ward https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1125 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:01:37 -0400 Editorial Note http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1128 <p>The editor's introduction for the Winter/Spring 2022 issue of&nbsp;<em>Journal of World-Systems Research</em>.</p> Andrej Grubačić Copyright (c) 2022 Andrej Grubačić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1128 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 16:01:16 -0400 How to Read Capitalism in the Web of Life http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1127 Jason W Moore Copyright (c) 2022 Jason W Moore https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1127 Sat, 26 Mar 2022 00:00:00 -0400 Editorial Note http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1078 <p>Editors introduction to&nbsp;<em>Journal of World-Systems Research&nbsp;</em>Vol. 27, No. 2 Summer/Autumn 2021</p> Andrej Grubačić Copyright (c) 2021 Andrej Grubačić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1078 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:56:57 -0400 The Logic of Dispossession http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1050 <p>One particular focus of world-systems analysis is to examine the historical trajectory of capitalist transformation in peripheral regions. This paper investigates the capitalist transformation in a specific peripheral area—the country of Bangladesh. In particular, it examines the role of dispossession in transforming an agricultural society into a neoliberal capitalist society by looking at the transformation of Panthapath Street in Dhaka, Bangladesh, since 1947. Building on the existing literature of dispossession, this article proposes an approach that explains the contribution of dispossession in capitalist accumulation. The proposed theory consists of four logics of dispossession: transformative, exploitative, redistributive, and hegemonic. These four logics of dispossession, both individually and dialectically reinforcing one another, work to privatize the commons, proletarianize subsistence laborers, create antagonistic class relations, redistribute wealth upward, and commodify sociopolitical and cultural aspects of urban life. This paper’s central argument is that dispossession not only converted an agricultural society into a capitalist society in Bangladesh, but that dispossession continues to reproduce the country’s existing capitalist system. This research draws on a wide range of empirical and historical evidence collected from Dhaka, Bangladesh, in 2017 and 2018.</p> Lipon Mondal Copyright (c) 2021 Lipon Mondal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1050 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:47:22 -0400 Covid-19 and Semi-Periphery http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1049 <p>The&nbsp; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic&nbsp; has disturbed the order of the world-system. While central countries—through their pharmaceutical multinationals—focused on the development of&nbsp; vaccines, semi-peripheral and peripheral countries fulfill another role, either by offering an environment for trials, or by inserting themselves in the hierarchical global order as a hub for research, development, or production of the candidate vaccines. This paper focuses on the analysis of the geopolitics of the world-system regarding production and participation in the clinical trials of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 of Oxford University-AstraZeneca, BioNTech-Pfizer, and Sinopharm in Argentina. This is a case analysis of the Argentine semi-peripheral context, the local and global pharmaceutical industry, and the geopolitical order. We conclude that Argentina, which has scientific and industrial capabilities to manufacture vaccines, has joined in global value chains on the dependence side, deepening the scientific and technological gap vis-à-vis the central countries.</p> Daniel Blinder, Lautaro Zubeldía, Sofya Surtayeva Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel Blinder, Lautaro Zubeldía, Sofya Surtayeva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1049 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:47:03 -0400 Capitalizing on Green Debt http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1062 <p>Green bonds represent an increasingly popular way to match “environmental sustainability,” growth, and the aspirations of global financial capital. In this article, we leverage a world-ecology approach to unpack and make sense of green bonds as public/private constructions that shape and subordinate the complex ecologies of territories to the needs of finance and reproduce the global patterns of uneven development and capitalist accumulation. Through the study of recent green bond issuances realized by private companies active in the forestry sector in Brazil, we discuss how green bonds as a “new” form of “green” debt put nature at work and transform the territories and natural elements in the global south into “temporal and spatial fixes” for the needs of global financial capital.</p> Tomaso Ferrando, Gabriela De Oliveira Junqueira, Marcela Vecchione-Gonçalves, Iagê Miola, Flávio Marques Prol, Hector Herrera Copyright (c) 2021 Tomaso Ferrando, Gabriela De Oliveira Junqueira, Marcela Vecchione-Gonçalves, Iagê Miola, Flávio Marques Prol, Hector Herrera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1062 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:45:42 -0400 Neither Native or National http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1073 Rinaldo Walcott Copyright (c) 2021 Rinaldo Walcott https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1073 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:45:17 -0400 Can Liberation Be National? http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1064 Zachary Levenson Copyright (c) 2021 Zachary Levenson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1064 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:44:50 -0400 Rethinking Decolonization http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1075 Radhika Mongia Copyright (c) 2021 Radhika Mongia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1075 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:44:26 -0400 Beyond Sovereignty http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1076 Victoria Hattam Copyright (c) 2021 Victoria Hattam https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1076 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:44:04 -0400 The Making and the Undoing of “Migration” http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1072 Martina Tazzioli Copyright (c) 2021 Martina Tazzioli https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1072 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:43:42 -0400 The Banality of Citizenship http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1074 Bridget Anderson Copyright (c) 2021 Bridget Anderson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1074 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:43:14 -0400 Be Careful What You Fight For http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1077 Nandita Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Nandita Sharma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1077 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 21:42:35 -0400 Onward To Liberation!—Samir Amin and the Study of World Historical Capitalism http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1014 <p>This article presents theoretical and methodological insights of world-systems analysis via the works of Samir Amin and his major interlocuteurs. It is argued that Samir Amin was central to sparking the study of world historical analysis, and offered unique contributions to the discussions that emerged. It is demonstrated that this is due to Samir Amin’s ability to balance structure, specificity, and historical contingency, as well as his enduring commitment to human liberation.</p> Salimah Valiani Copyright (c) 2021 Salimah Valiani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1014 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 The Evolving Arctic in the World-System http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1042 <p>Global climate change’s continuing effect on the Arctic has brought about a fundamental shift in the region’s identity as it becomes an ever more active area in the world-system. Economic opportunities such as new shipping routes and a bounty of natural resources that were hitherto ice-locked are becoming accessible as the pace of climate change quickens, garnering increasing attention from actors around the world-system. This article explores the new geopolitical and economic realities of the Arctic through the lens of world-system analysis by examining the region’s budding role in the world-economy and emerging economic opportunities, its unique core-peripheral nature, and its potential to spark a regional hegemonic rivalry between NATO and a Sino-Russian partnership. This article aims introduce the evolving Arctic to world-systems studies and promote further research on the region using the theoretical framework.</p> Zachary Lavengood Copyright (c) 2021 Zachary Lavengood https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1042 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Periodizing the Capitalocene as Polemocene http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1045 <p class="AbstractParagraphs">Lewis and Maslin explore geological markers for the beginning of the “Anthropocene”-beginning, in their periodization, in either 1492 (naming the birth of capitalism as the cause of planetary crisis) or 1945 (naming elite-driven militarization as its cause). In this essay, I argue for a synthesis of these two dynamics, locating both the birth of capitalism and a transformation of elite-driven militarization in the conquest of the New World during the Long Sixteenth Century. As such, I propose narrating planetary history through a “capitalocene as polemocene,” “the age of capital as an age of war” framework.</p> John Peter Antonacci Copyright (c) 2021 John Peter Antonacci https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1045 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Outlines of a Global Power-Field (GPF) Theory (Part 1) http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1031 <p>This essay takes modern world-system theory and maps it into a political-economic field of power. This re-modeling of the theory better illustrates the diffuseness and the spatiality of the operations of global forces; thus, helping us have a greater appreciation of the durability and scope of Western economic and political hegemony across the world. Our exposition also tracks the structural transformation undergone by the Global Power-Field (GPF) throughout its history showing the evolving character of its dominance. Moreover, this field paradigm does not restrict its considerations to matters of political economy but also centralizes factors of politics and international relations that play a fundamental a role in driving historical dynamics. The workings of this emerging model are then illustrated by a historical case study from the Middle East: The nineteenth and early twentieth century Ottoman Empire.</p> Omer Awass Copyright (c) 2021 Omer Awass https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1031 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Review Of: Pacifying the Homeland: Intelligence Fusion and Mass Supervision. http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1079 Corey R. Payne Copyright (c) 2021 Corey R. Payne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1079 Sat, 14 Aug 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Blackness, Disposability, and the Black Spirit http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1057 Marilyn Grell-Brisk Copyright (c) 2021 Marilyn Grell-Brisk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1057 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 13:33:41 -0400 Review Of: The Global Police State http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1056 Zhandarka Kurti Copyright (c) 2021 Zhandarka Kurti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1056 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 13:27:48 -0400 Review Of: Routledge Handbook of Transformative Global Studies http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1055 Amentahru Wahlrab Copyright (c) 2021 Amentahru Wahlrab https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1055 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 13:21:39 -0400 Review Of: Contesting the Global Order: The Radical Political Economy of Perry Anderson and Immanuel Wallerstein http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1052 Juho Korhonen Copyright (c) 2021 Juho Korhonen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1052 Mon, 22 Mar 2021 13:10:24 -0400 Conversations with Staughton and Alice Lynd http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1037 Staughton Lynd, Alice Lynd Copyright (c) 2021 Staughton Lynd, Alice Lynd https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1037 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 16:58:15 -0400 All Economies are Ultimately Human Economies http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1043 David Graeber Copyright (c) 2021 David Graeber https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1043 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 16:46:55 -0400 Remarks on Challenging Capitalist Modernity http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1044 Immanuel Wallerstein Copyright (c) 2021 Immanuel Wallerstein https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1044 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 16:42:37 -0400 Theorizing Capitalist Imperialism for an Anti-Imperialist Praxis http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1022 <p>How does one craft an explicitly left theory of anti-imperialism that would animate an anti-imperialist praxis? World-systems analysis has a long history of engagement with theories of anti-imperialism from an explicitly Leninist perspective. For the founding fathers of World-Systems Analysis—Immanuel Wallerstein, Giovanni Arrighi, Samir Amin, and Andre Gunder Frank—anti-imperialism was an early central concern. Each of the four founders of world-systems analysis reads Lenin’s theory of imperialism seriously, but each has slightly different interpretations. One significant commonality they share is that they adopt Lenin’s periodization of imperialism, seeing imperialism as emergent in the late 19th century as part of a particular stage within the historical development of capitalism. However, as I will argue in this essay, perhaps it would be preferable to temporally expand Lenin’s concept of imperialism. Walter Rodney’s concept of “capitalist imperialism,” as I shall show in this essay, similarly calls Lenin’s periodization into question. Thereby, putting Rodney in conversation with Amin, Arrighi, Frank, and Wallerstein, leads me to further historicize world-systems’ theories of global imperialism thereby refining existing theories and levying that to build stronger praxis.</p> Kristin Plys Copyright (c) 2021 Kristin Plys https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1022 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 16:35:45 -0400 Ecologically Unequal Exchange of Plastic Waste? http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1026 <p>Plastic production has been increasing since mass production of plastics started in the 1950s. As plastic production has continued to rise, so has plastic waste. Meanwhile, international trade in plastic waste has increased as well. The narrative about global trade in plastic waste oftentimes is that the Global North transfers waste to the Global South. However, little is known quantitatively about the extent to which the Global North shifts environmental harms of plastic waste to the Global South. We examine the extent to which global trade in plastic waste provides evidence for ecologically unequal exchange relationships from 2003 to 2013. We then explore whether plastic waste can be a resource for some countries. Specifically, we investigate how trade in plastic waste is associated with level of economic development in high-income countries and non-high-income countries. The findings provide nuanced evidence of ecologically unequal exchange relationships between high-income countries and non-high-income countries in plastic waste trade. The results also indicate that higher plastic waste import is associated with greater economic development in non-high-income countries. This research advances our understanding of the theory of ecologically unequal exchange in the context of international trade in plastic waste.</p> Yikang Bai, Jennifer Givens Copyright (c) 2021 Yikang Bai, Jennifer Givens https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1026 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 16:27:30 -0400 Investigating the Asymmetric Core/Periphery Structure of International Labor Time Flows http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1006 <p class="ABKW" style="line-height: 200%;">This paper studies the core/periphery hierarchy of the capitalist world-economy in the current globalization era. The central and novel argument is that the network of international labor time flows reveals the core/periphery hierarchy of the world-economy with regard to the international division of labor. Based on the analysis of the labor time network of forty economies from the world input-output table, I find that the core/periphery structure of the world-economy has in large part remained unaltered for 1995-2009, though the asymmetry of international labor time flows decreased slightly between 2003-2009. Through regression analysis, I find that per capita income of a country is strongly associated with its command over global labor time. The regression analysis also lends evidence to the existence of oligarchic wealth. This wealth is not available to all countries, implying that the struggle of a country to improve its position in the capitalist world-economy tends to put downward pressure on the income of other countries.</p> Junfu Zhao Copyright (c) 2021 Junfu Zhao https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1006 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 15:37:55 -0400 Deglobalization, Globalization, and the Pandemic http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1028 <p>This article is a theory piece focused on causal propositions codification and future trends identification, both supported by descriptive statistical data. It aims to analyze the middle-term dynamics of globalization and deglobalization due to the effects of the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis, in general, and the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular. The broader context in which such dynamics are situated are the processes of capitalist world-economy restructuring, propitiated by the crisis the U.S. hegemony, on the one hand, and by the Chinese rise, on the other. We argue that the COVID-19 pandemic tends to deepen and accelerate ongoing processes of global fragmentation, especially in the productive and commercial dimensions. From the point of view of governments, in particular the United States, there are growing protectionist and manufacturing repatriation efforts. From the point of view of large corporations, the perception of risk derived from the suspension and rupture of global production chains emerges thanks to measures to prevent infection. Somehow, governments and companies can converge on understanding the world market as a growing source of risk and decreasing advantages. The counterpoint here may be China's interest and ability to lead the fight against the pandemic and post-pandemic recovery, restructuring the global order built in the last forty years in new institutional basis and from which it has been the main beneficiary.</p> Alexandre Abdal, Douglas M. Ferreira Copyright (c) 2021 Douglas Ferreira, Alexandre Abdal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1028 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 15:29:50 -0400 Middle Kingdom Enters Middle East http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1027 <p>Through the lens of world-systems analysis, this research argues that Beijing is creating a miniature world-system overlapping with the United States-led world-system via its Belt Road Initiative (BRI). Although China has not yet become a core power, its BRI seems to possess the qualities of a new world-system in the making, within which China enjoys hegemonic traits such as economic and military might and capable alternative institutions. This BRI-bound world-system consists of BRI participant states whose areas and processes are being molded to better fit China as core and hegemon; a phenomenon known as peripheralization. In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the Maritime Silk Road Initiative (MSRI) appears to be peripheralizing Arab states into this BRI-bound world-system through China’s growing economic dominance of the region and promotion of new modi operandi. After arguing the emergence of the BRI-bound world-system and establishing China’s peripheralization capacity, Lebanon is taken as a case study of a peripheral MENA state to illustrate how predominant Western hegemony can hamper China’s peripheralization apparatus, forcing it to choose areas/processes of the highest immediate relevance for focused peripheralization efforts.</p> Toufic Sarieddine Copyright (c) 2021 Toufic Sarieddine https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1027 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 15:21:05 -0400 Pre-Emptive Decline http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1030 <p>Why do hegemonic powers appear to have so few viable policy levers with which to cope with their fears of decline, and often adopt policies that are least well-suited, if not antithetical to the task? In this work I suggest that status threat generates a set of typical and quite maladaptive responses at both the individual/organizational level, and in the context of popular political culture, that exacerbate decline. This phenomenon, “pre-emptive decline,” is evident in both elite-driven policy and mass political responses and is reviewed here in maladaptive courses of action adopted in 19th century Britain, and in the contemporary United States.</p> Robert Denemark Copyright (c) 2021 Robert Denemark https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1030 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 15:08:00 -0400 Starting a Dialogue: From Radical Criminology to Critical Resistance http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1051 Zhandarka Kurti Copyright (c) 2021 Zhandarka Kurti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1051 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 15:01:36 -0400 World Histories of Big Data Policing http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1033 <p>Textbook presentations of U.S. policing name the present as new stage of professionalization: the homeland security era, where the application of “big data” promises “smarter” policing. Within this framework of gradual progress, liberal police scholarship has become the official criticism of big data policing to organize a project of liberal reform. Of course, this scholarship is being in written in the context of both militant social movements within the United States and the terminal decline of U.S. global hegemony. To clarify the stakes of this moment, this paper connects the Marxist anti-security perspective and anti-racist critiques of surveillance and big data policing from within the Black radical tradition. It argues that the emergence of big data policing is the latest development in on-going processes of pacification that have expanded, organized, and reproduced the colonial/modern world-system over the longue durée.&nbsp; The paper extends and elaborates conceptualizations of hegemonic cycles in relation to work on the maturation of intelligence tradecraft, focusing on two interrelated developments: (1) two information revolutions that reorganized social relations and (2) the police-wars that shaped the rise and decline of the United States as a world hegemonic power. It concludes that big data policing is the latest outgrowth of the imperial epistemology that organized and continues animate the work of pacification and obscure the politics of anti-systemic struggle.&nbsp;</p> Brendan McQuade Copyright (c) 2021 Brendan McQuade https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1033 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 14:54:55 -0400 Policing Asylum Seekers’ Flight Within Europe http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1024 <p class="western" lang="en-US" style="line-height: 200%;" align="left">A critical assessment of the Dublin regulation requires a look beyond its official function of allocating asylum seekers across EU Member States. This article argues it embodies the “hidden face” of Schengen insofar as it legally fixes them in the sole country responsible for their application. Because this responsibility lies primarily with the first country of arrival, it is consistent with the core-periphery axis of division of labor in the EU. The first part of this paper examines how the Schengen/Dublin dual regime of (im)mobility might respond to the constant need for bridled labor alongside free wage labor in the world-system. However, equally constant is labor power’s propensity to evade its subsumption under capital; this is exemplified by Dubliners’ appropriation of freedom of movement through irregularity. By deserting the “plantations” of the European peripheries, those “maroons” of our present time disrupt the European geography of power and contest their assigned position in it. But the widely acknowledged failure of this regime to deter “secondary movements” does not necessarily mean it is non-effective. Attention must then be given to mechanisms of “exclusion from within” experimented on Dubliners. The second part will offer an overview of the tactics of internal rebordering that have been recently deployed in core countries and question the extent to which those attempts to recapture their flight meet the conditions for the optimization of capital’s operations.</p> Tom Montel Copyright (c) 2021 Tom Montel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1024 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 14:43:00 -0400 Debt as Pacification http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1017 <p>Debt is pacification’s dirtiest little secret and its cleanest weapon. Pacification is the name we give to the fabrication of social order; it is the goal of the police power and the police wars that dominate our political landscape. To understand pacification, we need to pay close attention not only to professional violence workers, but also to the far more subtle ways in which subjects are rendered obedient to a social order of exploitation and alienation. As critical theories of police power have shown, the wage is crucial to this process. But so too is debt. This article argues that we need to understand debt as pacification. In the process, the article also aims to strengthen and deepen the concept of pacification and the idea of police power.</p> Mark Neocleous Copyright (c) 2021 Mark Neocleous https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1017 Sun, 21 Mar 2021 14:29:39 -0400 A Feminist Analysis of Security in Turkey http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1034 <p>This article analyzes the securitization of the political space under the Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (Justice and Development Party, AKP) governments in Turkey with a critical feminist lens. We argue that a feminist reading unpacks the connection between AKP’s discursive strategies in the spheres of social and national security. We focus on the AKP’s proposals that address social policy and defense policy spheres—namely, the “Women’s Employment Package;” “Family Package;” and “Internal Security Package.” In our analysis, we start from the argument that the AKP’s terms in office represent the last phase of neoliberal transformation in the country. Packages in this phase also speak to the patchwork style of neoliberal policy making. They function as means for checking, and then, manipulating public opinion. Analysis of the packages provides insight into the AKP’s increasing resort to violence vis-á-vis opposition as well as the deepening of the economic crisis in the country in the last two decades.</p> Simten Cosar, Gulden Ozcan Copyright (c) 2021 Simten Cosar, Gulden Ozcan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1034 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 18:39:09 -0400 Securing Manifest Destiny http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1023 <p>This article argues Mexico’s war on drugs was a tactic by elites in both the United States and Mexico to legitimate the Mexican neoliberal state’s political, economic, and ideological governance over Mexican society. Through tough on crime legislation and maintenance of free market policies, the war on drugs is a “morbid symptom” that obfuscates the crisis of global capitalism in the region. It is a way of managing a crisis of legitimacy of Mexico’s neoliberal state. Through arguments of Mexico as a potential “failed state” and a “narco-state,” the United States has played a leading role by investing in militarized policing in the drug war and securitization of Mexico’s borders to expand and maintain capitalist globalization. In the twenty-first century, the ideology of manifest destiny persists, but instead of westward expansion of the U.S. state, it serves as the maintenance and expansion of global capitalism.</p> Steven Osuna Copyright (c) 2021 Steven Osuna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1023 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 18:29:50 -0400 Introduction to the Special Issue on Capitalist World-Economy in Crisis http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1054 Zeynep Gönen, Zhandarka Kurti Copyright (c) 2021 Zeynep Gönen, Zhandarka Kurti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1054 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 18:20:20 -0400 Editorial Note http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1053 <p>Editors introduction to&nbsp;<em>Journal of World-Systems Research&nbsp;</em>Vol. 27, No. 1 Special Issue on Capitalist World-Economy in Crisis: Policing, Pacification, and Legitimacy</p> Andrej Grubačić Copyright (c) 2021 Andrej Grubačić https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1053 Sat, 20 Mar 2021 18:13:53 -0400 Treadmills of Production and Destruction in the Anthropocene http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/981 <p>Human activities in Latin American countries have resulted in past and ongoing deforestation located in the Amazon and the Andes.&nbsp; Demonstrative of this new Anthropocene Epoch, the illegal production of cocaine stands as a major driver of these environmental outcomes in these countries; however, in recent years the extraction of illegal gold has yielded larger export values than that of cocaine.&nbsp; The consequences of these practices have far-reaching environmental, economic, and social consequences.&nbsp; Using a critical realist perspective, we investigate and analyze how, when, and under what conditions the treadmills of production and destruction are absent, present, and thriving in Colombia and Peru.&nbsp; The implications of these relationships are grave as both the Amazon and the Andes are undergoing extensive transformations – damage that represents the Anthropocene Epoch in which human activities are driving ecological systems toward “tipping points”.&nbsp; We find that the two treadmills operate differently within each country and that treadmills are not ubiquitous but are, instead, contingent.&nbsp; We underscore the fact that when present, both types of treadmills have the ability to engage in social and environmental destructions, sometimes violently so.</p> Chad L. Smith, Gregory Hooks, Michael Lengefeld Copyright (c) 2020 Chad L. Smith, Gregory Hooks, Michael Lengefeld https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/981 Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Introduction to the Special Issue on World-Systems Analysis and the Anthropocene http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1021 <p>Across the social sciences and humanities, and in diverse forms of popular media around the world, discourse about the Anthropocene is proliferating. From the plastic particles found in deep sea trenches to the unfolding of Earth’s sixth mass extinction, among many other indicators—notably anthropogenic climate change—it is clear that human impacts may have irreversibly perturbed the planet. This special issue sets out to deepen and broaden the conversation from a world-systems perspective. Building upon a long tradition of scholarship deploying world-systems theory to understand global environmental change, we wish to explore the past, present, and future of the world-system with/in the Anthropocene. In this introduction we first offer prefatory remarks about the Anthropocene (by no means a universally accepted concept) that are meant to help orient readers to debates around the Anthropocene before turning to a summary of the contributions and the themes that emerge in this Special Issue.</p> Leslie Sklair, Michael Warren Murphy Copyright (c) 2020 Leslie Sklair, Michael Murphy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 http://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1021 Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400