Journal of World-Systems Research https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr <p>The <em>Journal of World-Systems Research</em> is the official journal of the <a href="http://www.asapews.org/">Political Economy of the World-System Section </a>of the American Sociological Association. <em>JWSR </em>is an open-access, peer reviewed journal with an interdisciplinary audience of readers from around the world.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ol><li>The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.</li><li>Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.</li><li>The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a <a title="CC-BY" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:<ol type="a"><li>Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;</li></ol>with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.</li><li>The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.</li><li>Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.</li><li>The Author represents and warrants that:<ol type="a"><li>the Work is the Author’s original work;</li><li>the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;</li><li>the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;</li><li>the Work has not previously been published;</li><li>the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and</li><li>the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.</li></ol></li><li>The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.</li></ol><p><span style="font-size: 75%;">Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link. </span></p> jwsreditors@pitt.edu (Journal of World-Systems Research) e-journals@mail.pitt.edu (OJS Technical Support) Tue, 25 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Treadmills of Production and Destruction in the Anthropocene https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/981 <p>Human activities in Latin American countries have resulted in past and ongoing deforestation located in the Amazon and the Andes.&nbsp; Demonstrative of this new Anthropocene Epoch, the illegal production of cocaine stands as a major driver of these environmental outcomes in these countries; however, in recent years the extraction of illegal gold has yielded larger export values than that of cocaine.&nbsp; The consequences of these practices have far-reaching environmental, economic, and social consequences.&nbsp; Using a critical realist perspective, we investigate and analyze how, when, and under what conditions the treadmills of production and destruction are absent, present, and thriving in Colombia and Peru.&nbsp; The implications of these relationships are grave as both the Amazon and the Andes are undergoing extensive transformations – damage that represents the Anthropocene Epoch in which human activities are driving ecological systems toward “tipping points”.&nbsp; We find that the two treadmills operate differently within each country and that treadmills are not ubiquitous but are, instead, contingent.&nbsp; We underscore the fact that when present, both types of treadmills have the ability to engage in social and environmental destructions, sometimes violently so.</p> Chad L. Smith, Gregory Hooks, Michael Lengefeld Copyright (c) 2020 Chad L. Smith, Gregory Hooks, Michael Lengefeld https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/981 Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Introduction to the Special Issue on World-Systems Analysis and the Anthropocene https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1021 <p>Across the social sciences and humanities, and in diverse forms of popular media around the world, discourse about the Anthropocene is proliferating. From the plastic particles found in deep sea trenches to the unfolding of Earth’s sixth mass extinction, among many other indicators—notably anthropogenic climate change—it is clear that human impacts may have irreversibly perturbed the planet. This special issue sets out to deepen and broaden the conversation from a world-systems perspective. Building upon a long tradition of scholarship deploying world-systems theory to understand global environmental change, we wish to explore the past, present, and future of the world-system with/in the Anthropocene. In this introduction we first offer prefatory remarks about the Anthropocene (by no means a universally accepted concept) that are meant to help orient readers to debates around the Anthropocene before turning to a summary of the contributions and the themes that emerge in this Special Issue.</p> Leslie Sklair, Michael Warren Murphy Copyright (c) 2020 Leslie Sklair, Michael Murphy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1021 Thu, 20 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Review Of: First-Class Passengers on a Sinking Ship: Elite Politics and the Decline of Great Powers https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1019 Corey R Payne Copyright (c) 2020 Corey R. Payne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1019 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Review Of: La guerre de Sept Ans https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1020 Matthew Hayes Copyright (c) 2020 Matthew Hayes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1020 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Envisioning Indigenous Models for Social and Ecological Change in the Anthropocene https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/996 <p>Indigenous societies provide alternatives to hegemonic social institutions that global capitalism spread around the world, contributing to human caused environmental degradation called the Anthropocene, coterminous with the development of the modern world-system.&nbsp; In this work we describe Indigenous communities using ten social spheres, that balance human needs through ecological mindfulness, including spirituality, and then we model how these social spheres can be adapted to contemporary world-systems using a radical imaginary, building off Indigenous works by Fenelon (2015; 2016), social perspectives of Pellow (2017) and&nbsp;Norgaard (2019), and environmental geospatial sciences (Lui, Springer, and Wagner 2008; Jankowski 2009). We identify four social constructs from Indigenous peoples—(1) decision-making, (2) land tenure and resource management, (3) economic and (4) community—which we model for societies in world-systems through the ten imagined social spheres, to present foundations that empower communities to resist the coming climate change futures of the Anthropocene.</p> James Fenelon, Jennifer Alford Copyright (c) 2020 James Fenelon, Jennifer Alford https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/996 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 The World-System and the Earth System https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/989 <p>Efforts to conceptualize the role of asymmetric resource transfers in the capitalist world-system have been constrained by the emphasis on surplus value and the labor theory of value in Marxist thought. A coherent theory of ecologically unequal exchange must focus on asymmetric flows of biophysical resources such as embodied labor, land, energy, and materials. To conceptualize these flows in terms of&nbsp; “underpaid costs” or “surplus value” is to suggest that the metabolism of the world-system can be accounted for using a monetary metric. This paper rejects both labor and energy theories of value in favor of the observation that market pricing tends to lead to asymmetric resource flows. The Marxist labor theory of value is an economic argument, rather than a physical one. In acknowledging this we may transcend the recent debate within ecological Marxism about whether “nature” and “society” are valid categories. Nature and society are ontologically entwined, as in the undertheorized phenomenon of modern technology, but should be kept analytically distinct. Since the Industrial Revolution, technological progress has been contingent on the societal ratios by which biophysical resources are exchanged on the world market. The failure among Marxist and world-system theorists to properly account for this central aspect of capitalist accumulation can be traced to the pervasive assumption that market commodities have objective values that may exceed their price. Instead of arguing with mainstream economists about whether market assessments of value are justified, it is more analytically robust to observe that market valuation is destroying the biosphere.</p> Alf Hornborg Copyright (c) 2020 Alf Hornborg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/989 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Anthropocene Fiction and World-Systems Analysis https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/988 <p>As developed by Immanuel Wallerstein and various co-thinkers, world-systems analysis is essentially an approach to economic history and historical sociology that has been largely indifferent to literary studies. This indifference is perhaps surprising given that the Annales school, which clearly influenced Wallerstein’s work, produced a foundational account of the emergence of modern western literature in Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin’s L’apparition du livre (1958). More recently, literary scholars have attempted to apply this kind of analysis directly to their own field. The best-known instances are probably Pascale Casanova’s La republique mondiale des lettres (1999), Franco Moretti’s Distant Reading (2013) and the Warwick Research Collective’s Combined and Uneven Development (2015). More recently still, Andrew Milner in Australia and Jerry Määttä in Sweden have sought to apply “distant reading” more specifically to the genre of science fiction. Milner’s model of the “global SF field” identifies an original Anglo-French core, supplemented by more recent American and Japanese cores, longstanding Russian, German, Polish and Czech semi-peripheries, an emergent Chinese semi-periphery, and a periphery comprising the rest of the world. This essay attempts to apply that model to what Adam Trexler has termed “Anthropocene fictions” and Daniel Bloom “cli-fi”, which we treat here as a significant sub-genre of contemporary science fiction.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Andrew Milner, James Burgann Milner Copyright (c) 2020 Andrew Milner, James Burgann Milner https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/988 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Anthropocene, Emissions Budget, and the Structural Crisis of the Capitalist World-System https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/977 <p class="AbstractParagraphs">This paper evaluates the implications of global emissions budget distribution between three large geographical areas (China, OECD countries, and the rest of the world) in the context of Anthropocene and the structural crisis of the capitalist world system. Two plausible emissions distribution principles are considered. Under neither the inertia principle nor the equity principle, can continuing economic growth be made compatible with requirements of climate stabilization in all three regions. This conclusion does not change significantly when plausible acceleration of emissions intensity reduction in the future is taken into account. To limit global warming to not more than 2 degrees Celsius by the end of this century, at least two of the three large regions need to reorganize their economies to operate with zero or negative growth. Such a reorganization cannot be achieved under a capitalist economic system given the inherent tendency of capitalism towards endless accumulation. Neither is it likely to be achieved under any conceivable economic system dominated by market relations.</p> Minqi Li Copyright (c) 2020 Minqi Li https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/977 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Nuclear Weapons and the Treadmill of Destruction in the Making of the Anthropocene https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/982 <p>This research analyzes the human dimensions of environmental degradation and injustice in the age of nuclear weapons. Human societies are fundamentally linked to global environmental systems and are transforming ecological conditions in dramatic ways, such that the current epoch has been termed the Anthropocene. This article highlights the human health consequences, ecological transformations, and threats to biodiversity imposed by military institutions in the Anthropocene; emphasizing how these outcomes can be traced to specific interrelated sets of processes and generative conditions. I advance the treadmill of destruction theory as one useful theoretical framework for examining these socio-ecological interrelationships. The investigation focuses on the institutional foundations of nuclear war strategy and preparations for nuclear war, and their interactions with ecosystems. I provide an analysis of the American nuclear weapons production process, revealing how a treadmill of destruction emerged after World War II. This analysis of how the developmental dynamics of nuclear weapons have changed over time brings greater clarity to the Anthropocene concept and the distinct role of military institutions in shaping the new era.</p> Michael Lengefeld Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Lengefeld https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/982 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Refiguring the Plantationocene https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/983 <p>While sympathetic to debates about the utility, accuracy, and significance of the “Anthropocene,” in this brief essay, we are most interested in implicating racialization, colonization, and their ongoing place in the capitalist world-economy and global ecological change. To this end, we point to the potential of thinking with the “Plantationocene,” considering that to invoke the plantation is to simultaneously contend with the intermeshing organization of the colonialist/imperialist, racialist, and capitalist dimensions of the world-system as directly related to global environmental transformation since the 15th century.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Michael Warren Murphy, Caitlin Schroering Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Warren Murphy, Caitlin Schroering https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/983 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 The World Ecology of Desalination https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/987 <p>World-systems scholars are increasingly engaged in issues at the intersection of ecological and economic concerns since the proliferation of debates on the Anthropocene. Recently, the alternative concept of Capitalocene—age of Capital—has emerged to draw attention to the world-ecological disruption of capitalism founded on cheap nature appropriation at ever-emerging extraction zones. This paper extends these discussions to the oceanic frontier, as the latest trend in the abstraction of value from the environment. Based on original archival research conducted in the context of a larger ethnographic project on the politics of industrial desalination—creating potable water from the sea—the article analyzes how this practice emerged in two phases. First, the Cold War opened the ocean as a commodity frontier during the pax Americana. Then, when this technopolitical agenda stagnated, financialization techniques were deployed to appropriate seawater, utilizing a mode of financial engineering—desalination via financialization reinstates the cultural hegemony of the Capitalocene that privileges infrastructure for water supply management solutions. As such, the article highlights the co-production of nature with financial capitalism.</p> Brian F O'Neill Copyright (c) 2020 Brian Francis O'Neill https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/987 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Power and Politics in the World-System https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/998 <p style="font-weight: 400;">While various researchers and practitioners agree that it will be hard to restructure our current global and local systems to adapt to and mitigate climate change, there is unsurprisingly great disagreement in how and if this can be accomplished and on what level(s), or if this is even what needs to be accomplished. These conversations have continued with the introduction of the “Anthropocene.” The dominant interpretation of the concept poses several solutions, one being national government restructuring to support environmental efforts and encouraging behavioral change. To join conversations that critically evaluate the conceptualization and implications of the Anthropocene with the world-systems perspective, we consider how the effectiveness of national environmental governance in reducing CO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;emissions varies by a country’s position in the global hierarchy. Using two-way fixed effects regression, this article tests how one aspect of this environmental governance, environmentally related taxes as a percentage of total tax revenue impacts CO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;emissions for 75 countries from 2000 to 2011. Given inequities in the global division of labor, which reinforce the dominance of higher-income countries and the exploitation of lower-income countries, we expect the effectiveness of environmental governance to vary tremendously by global position. Our results support the idea that the impact of environmental governance on CO2 emissions varies across countries at different income levels in the world-system, and this is due to external constraints. Such external influence is unsurprisingly neglected in dominant interpretations of the Anthropocene. In line with previous critical research, we argue that these external constraints undermine climate change solutions because they fail to address mutually reinforcing global, political, economic, and environmental inequalities.</p> Jamie M. Sommer, Andrew Hargrove Copyright (c) 2020 Jamie Sommer, Andrew Hargrove https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/998 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Introduction https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1011 <p>Work for reparations requires interventions by world historians to bear witness to the brutalities of the past as part of a process that seeks truth and reconciliation, along with some measure of accountability and restitution.&nbsp; Shifting our lens to encompass world history exposes the varied effects of slavery and the slave trade, and it allows us to interrogate national boundaries and hegemonic histories. It also makes visible the myriad forms of resistance to the capitalist world-system, nurturing the radical imagination of alternatives. We discuss work in the United Nations and other global political spaces to advance demands for reparations and introduce contributions to this symposium.</p> Michael Warren Murphy, Jackie Smith, Patrick Manning, Ruth Mostern Copyright (c) 2020 Michael Warren Murphy, Jackie Smith, Patrick Manning, Ruth Mostern https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1011 Wed, 19 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Editor’s Introduction https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1015 <p>Editors introduction to <em>Journal of World-Systems Research </em>Vol. 26, No. 2</p> Jackie Smith Copyright (c) 2020 Jackie Smith https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1015 Thu, 06 Aug 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Choices in Implementing Reparations https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1009 Patrick Manning Copyright (c) 2020 Patrick Manning https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1009 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Reparations, Restitution, Transitional Justice https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1010 Joyce Hope Scott Copyright (c) 2020 Joyce Hope Scott https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1010 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Making Our Way Home https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1008 Prentiss A. Dantzler, Aja D. Reynolds Copyright (c) 2020 Prentiss A. Dantzler, Aja Reynolds https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/1008 Mon, 27 Jul 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Disasters are Everyday Like the Weather https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/999 <p class="AbstractParagraphs">This essay offers an urgent intervention from the global South in contribution to this special issue on the Anthropocene. Drawing from Rob Nixon's work on slow violence, the author offers sobering reflections on the everyday realities of what she writes as the “Philippine Anthropocene”: not only is this defined by spectacular freak weather conditions, but also shaped by normalized and state-sanctioned forms of abandonment and terror. Written in the present political context of intensifying state attacks on civil society in the country, the author recasts the light on anthropogenic forces of violence which endanger lives at the front lines of daily disasters, more lethal than the strongest storm in recorded history.</p> Chaya Go Copyright (c) 2020 Chaya Ocampo Go https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/999 Fri, 19 Jun 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Review of: Globalizing the Caribbean: Political Economy, Social Change, and the Transnational Capitalist Class https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/992 Zophia Edwards Copyright (c) 2020 Zophia Edwards https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/992 Tue, 10 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Review of: Globalization, EU Democracy Assistance and the World Social Forum: Concepts and Practices of Democracy https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/991 Marek Mikuš Copyright (c) 2020 Marek Mikuš https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/991 Tue, 10 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Remembering Immanuel Wallerstein https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/995 <p><em>Immanuel Wallerstein, one of the leading founders and promoters of world-systems analysis, died on August 31, 2019. Given the importance of his scholarship to the </em>Journal of World-Systems Research, <em>we plan to publish in future issues research articles based on conferences and symposia that are now being planned to honor Wallerstein’s work and legacy. In this essay, </em>JWSR<em> founding editor, Christopher Chase-Dunn, is joined by current editor Jackie Smith incoming editor Andrej </em><em>Grubacic, and World Historical Information section editor Patrick Manning offering reflections on some of Wallerstein’s contributions to both scholarship and practice.</em></p> Christopher Chase-Dunn, Jackie Smith, Patrick Manning, Andrej Grubacic Copyright (c) 2020 Christopher Chase-Dunn, Jackie Smith, Andrej Grubacic, Patrick Manning https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/995 Tue, 10 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Editors' Introduction https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/994 <p>Editors' Introduction to <em>Journal of World-Systems Research </em>Volume 26, Issue 1 (Winter/Spring 2020)</p> Jackie Smith, Isaac Kamola, Alexandre White, Patrick Manning Copyright (c) 2020 Jackie Smith, Isaac Kamola, Patrick Manning, Alexandre White https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/994 Tue, 10 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0400 Fear of a Yellow Planet: The Gilets Jaunes and the End of the Modern World-System https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/902 <p>The emergence of the Gilet Jaunes has seen a section of the popular classes present a significant challenge to the elite-driven ideological frameworks that have dominated since the end of the cold war: neoliberalism and the Clash of Civilisations. What Immanuel Wallerstein calls ‘centrist liberalism’ has been the dominant ideological foundation of the modern world-system since the late nineteenth century. Its current form, neoliberalism, is in crisis across the core of the world-system, intensified following the Great Recession of 2008. This has invited new challenges from revived and reconstituted political formations of both right and left. Populist movements are a part of this process of ideological reconstitution, and the Gilets Jaunes are an important example of progressive populism calling for social and economic justice. What was triggered by a protest directed at increased fuel taxes rapidly escalated into a much broader protest movement whose influence has spread beyond French borders. Importantly, the Gilet Jaunes have brought a layer of the French working-classes into the public realm in dramatic fashion, raising issues such as equality, public welfare, and participatory and direct democracy that challenge neo-liberal norms. The agenda that has emerged from the Gilet Jaunes illustrates the way in which a working-class left is being reconstituted in opposition to forces of the political right. The article addresses three main questions: Why have the Gilet Jaunes emerged? Who makes up these protests? What do they mean?</p> Peter Wilkin Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Wilkin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/902 Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Coppering the Industrial Revolution: History, Materiality and Culture in the Making of an Ecological Regime https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/917 <p>No copper, no Industrial Revolution. Although accountants listed it in the very last position in the table of “value added” per sector in 1831, the British copper industry was essential for the Industrial Revolution, the period of British hegemony over the world-economy. In this article, I use the figure-ground method proposed by Terence K. Hopkins to show that the copper industry played key roles in the ecological regime of the 1700-1840 period, due to its material properties and related historical contingencies and cultural valuations. By focusing in on particular production processes, historical contingencies, and cultural phenomena in which copper played an important and unique role, and then zooming out again to the world-economy as a whole, I show that an Industrial Revolution would not have happened without copper. From sugar production in the Caribbean to textile printing, from the slave trade to the Battle of Saintes, from the development of the steam engine to gin and rum production, from the telegraph to buckles and buttons, copper was conspicuous. This demonstrates the ecological regime of the period, in which the removal of a single commodity from the picture—i.e., copper—disrupts the whole constellation of relations. This study also shows that a “copper boom” immediately before and at the start of the Industrial Revolution (~1700-1800), instrumental in the British struggle against France for the hegemony over the world-economy, has been overlooked in the literature. Additionally, the article includes a reflection on method.</p> Daniel Cunha Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel Cunha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/917 Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Opposing Observations and the Political-Economy of Malaria Vulnerability: A Community-Based Study in Bududa, Uganda https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/967 <p>Malaria is a parasitic infection that remains a leading threat to health and development in many communities, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Bududa, Uganda, malaria represents a key threat to health and well-being. However, whether or not malaria rates are improving in the district over time represents a conundrum. By using principles of structural fieldwork and drawing on multiple data sources that include the more- and less- powerful, opposing observations emerge, where community members perceive marked increases in malaria rates over time, while official district-level data depict the opposite. World-systems analysis illuminates the reasons behind this discrepancy, along with the factors that community members use to explain the rise in malaria suffering, including environmental changes and decreased healthcare access. Overall, this research demonstrates how global economic policies and structures create unequal health impacts, placing those in Bududa at disproportionate and elevated vulnerability to malaria.</p> Kelly F. Austin Copyright (c) 2020 Kelly F. Austin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/967 Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Review of: Using Gramsci: A New Approach https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/974 <p><em>Gramsci’s Prison Notebooks has become a very important inspiration for the twentieth-century Marxist political thinkers around the world. ‘Using Gramsci A New Approach’ is one of the most recent additions to various works done around the Prison Notebooks of this Great Italian political theorist and cultural critics. Michele Filippini, a researcher in the Department of Political and Social Sciences at the University of Bologna has come up with ‘a new approach’ on Prison Notebooks and has touched some major concepts that are previously given little attention by Gramscian scholars. By extending Gramsci’s concepts beyond Marxist perspective, Filippini’s book provides expert guides to key features and themes in Gramsci’s writing in combination with the pressing political, social and cultural struggles of our time. The author does not show a clear connection between those topics discussed in the book, but </em><em>his work remains a valuable addition to Gramscian thoughts in the twenty-first century.</em></p> <p><em>Key Words: Gramsci, Prison Notebooks, </em><em>ideology,</em> <em>the individual,</em> <em>Society</em></p> Gifawosen Markos Mitta Copyright (c) 2020 Gifawosen Markos Mitta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/974 Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Research Note on Captive Atlantic Flows: Estimating Missing Data by Slave-Voyage Routes https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/971 <p>This essay provides new estimates of the number of captives carried in the Atlantic slave trade during each decade from the 1650s to the 1860s. It relies on two categories of known data—on the routes of voyages and the numbers of captives recorded on those voyages—as a basis for estimation of missing data and totals of captive flows. It uses techniques of Bayesian statistics to estimate missing data on routes and flows of captives. As a framework for the Bayesian estimates, it focuses on analysis of 40 distinct routes linking the African coast to the Americas and traces the captive flows—that is, the number of captives embarked on or disembarked from voyages along those routes. The dataset that provides the basis for this research note is available at:&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/6HLXO3">https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/6HLXO3</a>.</p> Patrick Manning, Yu Liu Copyright (c) 2020 Patrick Manning, Yu Liu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/971 Mon, 02 Mar 2020 00:00:00 -0500 The Land Question in China: Agrarian Capitalism, Industrious Revolution, and East Asian Development https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/930 - Wenkai He Copyright (c) 2019 Wenkai He https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/930 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 Migration and Agriculture: Mobility and Change in the Mediterranean Area https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/933 - Susan E. Mannon Copyright (c) 2019 Susan E. Mannon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/933 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 Dirty Gold: How Activism Transformed the Jewelry Industry https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/934 - Tim Bartley Copyright (c) 2019 Tim Bartley https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/934 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 Extreme Cities: The Peril and Promise of Urban Life in the Age of Climate Change https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/937 - Jacob F. Northcutt, Brett Clark Copyright (c) 2019 Jacob F. Northcutt, Brett Clark https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/937 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 Emotions and Mass Atrocity: Philosophical and Theoretical Explanations https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/938 - Thomas Reifer Copyright (c) 2019 Thomas Reifer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/938 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 Giants: The Global Power Elite https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/931 - Hiroko Inoue Copyright (c) 2019 Inoue Hiroko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/931 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 American Tianxia: Chinese Money, American Power, and the End of History https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/936 - Marilyn Grell-Brisk Copyright (c) 2019 Marilyn Grell-Brisk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/936 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 Erratum: Marion Werner. Global Displacements: The Making of Uneven Development in the Caribbean https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/963 Volume 25(1) of the Journal of World-Systems Research initially included a review by Jeb Sprague of Marion Werner’s Global Displacements: The Making of Uneven Development in the Caribbean, DOI 10.5195/JWSR.2019.920. Because the book review editor decided it would be better suited for inclusion in a proposed review symposium, she removed the review from the website, with the idea that it would run in a future issue. This was done in error, since by the time the decision was made to reschedule the review, it had already been published in the first issue of volume 25. Accordingly, a slightly revised version of the review has been restored to its original publication site. The book review editor regrets the mistake and apologizes for the confusion. Jackie Smith Copyright (c) 2019 Jackie Smith https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/963 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:42 -0400 The Political-Military Foundations of China’s Global Ascendency https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/874 In recent years China has positioned itself as a global economic leader, working through its “Belt and Road” initiative (BRI) and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), to not only expand its global economic reach, but to organize and lead global economic relations. China’s rise is largely understood in economic terms, but the history of global power dynamics suggests that such leadership is built on both economic and political-military foundations. This paper explores the structural relationship between China’s economic and political-military relationships with other states over the period 1993 to 2015. Drawing on a wide variety of data sources, we present a multi-dimensional analysis that measures the changing size of China’s economic and political-military networks, their shifting regional distribution, and the degree of coupling, or decoupling of economic ties from political-military ties. In describing these patterns, we conduct a similar analysis for the United States. This allows us to situate Chinese trends in the context of the structures of U.S. global power. Our analysis points to ways in which China’s global rise has been shaped through navigating U.S. global power. Our analysis also shows that China’s growing leadership in the global economy builds upon a set of existing political-military relationships that, while their scope and form are quite different from those that the United States built to support its hegemonic ascendency, are nevertheless critical for understanding the mechanisms by which Chinese power and influence has grown in the global political economy. Aaron Major, Zhifan Luo Copyright (c) 2019 Aaron Major, Zhifan Luo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/874 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Anarchism in the Web of Transnational Social Movements https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/876 <p class="AbstractKeywords">Anarchists have played a visible and significant role in global civil society since the 19th century and in the New Global Left since it emerged in the 1990s. Horizontalism and social libertarianism have been central components of the contemporary World Revolution and were also important in the world revolutions of 1968 and 1989. Anarchists have participated in the Social Forum process at the global, national and local levels and, in various ways, have influenced the contemporary world revolution far beyond their numbers. We use surveys from Social Forums to examine how self-identified actively involved anarchists are similar or different from other attendees. We also conduct a formal network analysis to examine the links that the anarchists have with other social movement themes. Despite the small number of self-identified anarchists, our findings suggest that anarchist organizational approaches and political values are widely shared among the activists who have been involved in the Social Forum process.</p> Christopher Chase-Dunn, John Aldecoa, Ian Breckenridge-Jackson, Joel S. Herrera Copyright (c) 2019 Christopher Chase-Dunn, John Aldecoa, Ian Breckenridge-Jackson, Joel S. Herrera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/876 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Sugar, Slavery, and Creative Destruction: World-Magnates and “Coreification” in the Longue-Durée https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/893 <p>Recent literature in the world-systems perspective has refocused attention on questions of ‘core’ and ‘periphery’ in historical capitalism, yet rarely critically examines the underlying assumptions regarding these zones. Drawing on a developing dataset on the world’s wealthiest individuals (the World-Magnates Database), we trace the development and expansion of sugar circuits across the Atlantic world from the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries to explain how the sugar commodity chain leads us to rethink some prevailing notions of core and periphery. Namely, we challenge the notion that these zones consist of geographical spaces that, since very early in the development of the world-economy, became permanently specialized in the production of raw materials (periphery) or more sophisticated manufactures (core); and that labor forces have been trans-historically relatively free/better-paid in core activities and coerced/poorly-paid in peripheral ones. We argue that, prior to the nineteenth century, the world-economy is not only characterized by the uneven and combined emergence of various forms of labor exploitation, as usually argued within a world-systems perspective, but also one in which core-like and peripheral activities (that is, those providing access to relatively greater or lesser wealth) were not yet as clearly bounded geographically as they would become in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. We find that a longue-durée analysis of sugar production by enslaved labor illustrates not merely processes of peripheralization, but of what we call <em>coreification</em>.</p> Roberto Patricio Korzeniewicz, Corey R Payne Copyright (c) 2019 Roberto Patricio Korzeniewicz, Corey R Payne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/893 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Saving the Sacred Sea: The Power of Civil Society in an Age of Authoritarianism and Globalization https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/932 - Salvatore Babones Copyright (c) 2019 Salvatore Babones https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/932 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Dust Bowls of Empire: Imperialism, Environmental Politics, and the Injustice of ‘Green’ Capitalism https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/935 - Md Belal Hossain Copyright (c) 2019 Md Belal Hossain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/935 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Dialogue: Race in the Capitalist World-System, Author Responses https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/943 - Michael G. Hanchard, William I. Robinson Copyright (c) 2019 Michael G. Hanchard https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/943 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Routes of Atlantic Slave Voyages: Revised Framework and New Insights https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/925 This study explores data on the Atlantic slave trade through a revised framework, focusing not simply on voyages of individual slave ships but on aggregating them by route, linking an African region of departure with an American region of arrival. The result shows a total of 40 slave routes, for which documented voyages are aggregated by decade from the 1650s through the 1860s. Within this framework, analysis is conducted at the level of documented voyages (by route and by decade) and also at the level of documented captive flows (by route and by decade). This intermediate frame of analysis lies between analysis of individual voyages and aggregate figures for the whole slave trade. Results of this analysis show the variation among routes: ten out of the forty routes account for 85% of the voyages. For each route, it is shown that the average numbers of captives departing Africa remained roughly constant from the 1650s through the 1830s; the same is true for the numbers of captives arriving in the Americas. These and other characteristics of the routes, as seen through voyages and captive flows, allow for new insights into the character and the changes in the Atlantic slave trade over two centuries. Patrick Manning, Yu Liu Copyright (c) 2019 Patrick Manning, Yu Liu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/925 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Dialogue: Race in the Capitalist World-System, Review of Hanchard's The Spectre of Race https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/941 - William I. Robinson Copyright (c) 2019 William I. Robinson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/941 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Dialogue: Race in the Capitalist World-System, Review of Robinson’s Into the Tempest https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/942 - Michael G. Hanchard Copyright (c) 2019 Michael G. Hanchard https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/942 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:41 -0400 Forging a Diagonal Instrument for the Global Left: The Vessel https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/947 This article takes up Samir Amin’s challenge to rethink the issue of global political organization by proposing the building of a diagonal political organization for the Global Left that would link local, national and world regional and global networks and prefigurational communities to coordinate contention for power in the world-system during the next few decades of the 21st century. The World Social Forum (WSF) process needs to be reinvented for the current period of rising neo-fascist and populist reactionary nationalism and to foster the emergence of a capable instrument that can confront and contend with the global power structure of world capitalism and aid local and national struggles. This will involve overcoming the fragmentation of progressive movements that have been an outcome of the rise of possessive individualism, the precariat, and social media. We propose a holistic approach to organizing a vessel for the global left based on struggles for climate justice, human rights, anti-racism, queer rights, feminism, sharing networks, peace alliances, taking back the city, progressive nationalism and confronting and defeating neo-fascism and new forms of conservative populism. Rebecca Álvarez, Christopher Chase-Dunn Copyright (c) 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/947 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:40 -0400 Needed: A New International for a Just Transition and Against Fascism https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/952 Mestrum draws from her extensive experience in the World Social Forum process to outline some of the reasons for past failures of left struggles to come together around the kind of fifth Internationale Amin proposes. A new Internationale, she argues “will require some serious and honest self-criticism and a downright rejection of all romanticism and naive utopianism…. we have to look for solutions beyond the easy slogans and assumptions.” Mestrum identifies important structural and ideological rifts in the global left. She is also wary of localized movements such as those advocated by Sklair, fearing that they could detract from the left’s ability to coalesce around a strong structural critique of globalized capitalism. What she sees as essential is the construction of “alter-globalist” identities and solidarity across issues and borders. This will require moving beyond abstract “anti-capitalist” ideology to build inter-connected campaigns that tackle the complex inter-connections among movement struggles. While cautioning against slogans, she sees lasting wisdom in Enlightenment principles of freedom, equality, and solidarity and modernity’s respect for universalism and diversity. These can help advance a politics of system change that is “emancipatory and transformative, geared towards the full realisation of individual and collective human rights for all.” Francine Mestrum Copyright (c) 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/952 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:40 -0400 World Revolution or Socialism, Community by Community, in the Anthropocene? https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/956 Like Robinson, Sklair is critical of Amin's state-centrism, and he sees the international system of hierarchical states: “The power of capitalist hegemony today is so overwhelming (allied as it is with the military and police powers of states) that the only viable strategy for change is by a process of negating, avoiding, and eventually consigning capitalism and the state to the dustbin of history.” He argues that, “Putting all our energies into world socialist revolution” (as Amin argues) “seems increasingly like a self-defeating strategy.” For Sklair, “[t]he only way out of this mess, the only chance of having a liveable planet for the generations to come …is to organise for small-scale socialist communities to create new forms of less destructive and hierarchical economy and society.” He envisions a project of locally-grounded “anarching,” where autonomous producer-consumer cooperatives (P-CCs) advance a “double strategy” that serves to “slow down capitalism” and to “bring into existence a new mode of production based on the different principles and [new] mentalities.” “[A] reconstructed political community could create more genuinely democratizing forms of economic, social, and political organization to encourage and facilitate networks of P-CCs [and…t]he transition from the present capitalist-statist hegemony to the new form of society. Leslie Sklair Copyright (c) 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/956 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:40 -0400 Climate Justice and Sustained Transnational Mobilization https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/946 Samir Amin’s final essay called for the creation of a new international organization of progressive social forces. This essay provides evidence from twenty-first century transnational movements on the likelihood of the emergence of such an international organization and the issues and sectors most likely to facilitate coalitional unity. More specifically, the ecological crises identified by Amin in the form of global warming and climate change create an unprecedented global environmental threat capable of unifying diverse social strata across the planet. The climate justice movement has already established a global infrastructure and template to coordinate a new international organization to confront neoliberal forms of globalization. Pre-existing movement organizing around environmental racism, climate justice in the global South, and recent intersectional mobilizations serve as promising models essential to building an enduring international organization representing subaltern groups. Paul Almeida Copyright (c) 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/946 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:40 -0400 Rethinking Samir Amin’s Legacy and the Case for a Political Organization of the Global Justice Movement https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/949 Juego argues that the new Internationale’s “primary organizational function should be the global coordination of actions of progressive grassroots movements from country to country.” He calls for a ‘learning organization,’ where the new Internationale supports “a continuous dialogue between bottom-up and top-down approaches to decision-making.” He sees it as “[a]kin to a global coordinating council” meaning that it works to integrate and synthesize the “varying initiatives, campaigns, and mass actions at all geographical levels of membership” while remaining mindful of the “dialectics between reform and revolution.” The new Internationale must, moreover, be “grounded on a pragmatic understanding of realpolitik especially in struggles at national and local scales,” and institutionalize a commitment to dialogue, research, and discussion. Bonn Juego Copyright (c) 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/949 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:40 -0400 The Twenty-First Century Revolutions and Internationalism: A World-Historical Perspective https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/951 In his essay, “It is imperative to reconstruct the Internationale of workers and peoples”, Samir Amin (2018) suggested that in order to “deconstruct the extreme centralization of wealth and the power that is associated with the [capitalist world] system”, we should seriously study “the experience of the worker Internationales [...], even if they belong to the past. This should be done, not in order to ‘choose’ a model among them, but to invent the most suitable form for contemporary conditions.” In this paper, I will follow Amin’s (2018) suggestion and provide a brief examination of the past experiences of first Internationales in the nineteenth century and conditions that produced them with an eye to the present moment. By comparing the political climate of the early twenty-first century to analogous comparable periods in world history, I will argue that today we need two distinct forms of global political organizations that are modeled after the International Workingmen’s Association and the Communist League. First one should serve as a horizontal “movement of movements” that would reflect the spontaneous and creative energy of mass movements from below; the second one should serve as a hierarchically organized world communist party. Şahan Savaş Karataşli Copyright (c) 2019 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group https://jwsr.pitt.edu/ojs/jwsr/article/view/951 Tue, 03 Sep 2019 14:04:40 -0400