The War on Drugs in Colombia: The Environment, the Treadmill of Destruction and Risk-Transfer Militarism
Keywords:Treadmill of Destruction, War on Drugs, Colombia, Climate Change, Risk-Transfer Militarism, "New" Wars
AbstractEcological damage, including global climate change, is commonly connected to practices and behaviors associated with economic activity and the Treadmill of Production (ToP). Less attention is paid to the connection between the military and environmental degradation, but recently the Treadmill of Destruction (ToD) has been documented as a global phenomenon with negative environmental effects. The ToD directly and indirectly contributes to environmental problems on many fronts, but one of the least obvious means by which the U.S. military influences the environment is through its policies supporting the "war on drugs. " The U.S. military aids Latin American countries, particularly Colombia, in the war on drugs in a number of capacities, including military support and training, weaponry, fumigation of crops, and logistical and surveillance support. The effort of the United States to curb the proliferation of illegal drug crops in Colombia is the most direct role that the military has played in this effort. Within the context of the "war on drugs" the United States is now engaged in risk-transfer militarism in which the consequences of this military action are borne by the Global South. We document the scope, magnitude, and consequences of the ToD in the war on drugs and the ways it negatively impacts the environment. Our argument reframes the ToD by emphasizing the role of risk-transfer militarism within the emergence of "new" wars as represented in the case of Colombia.
Achard, Federic, Hugh D. Eva, Hans-Jurgen Stibig, Philippe Mayaux, Javier Gallego, Timothy Richards and Jean-Paul Malingeau. 2002. “Determination of Deforestation Rates of the World’s Humid Tropical Forests.” Science 297(5583): 999-1002.
Alvarez, Maria D. 2001b. “Could Peace Be Worse than War for Colombia’s Forests?” The Environmentalist 21: 305-315.
Alvarez, Maria D. 2002. “Illicit Crops and Bird Conservation Priorities in Colombia.” Conservation Biology 16(4): 1086-1096.
Armenteras, Dolors, Guillermo Rudas, Nelly Rodriguez, Sonia Sua, Milton Romero. 2006. “Patterns and Causes of Deforestation in the Colombian Amazon.” Ecological Indicators 6: 353-368.
Armenteras, Dolors, Nelly Rodriguez, and Javier Retana. 2013. “Landscape Dynamics in Northwestern Amazonia: An Assessment of Pastures, Fire and Illicit Crops as Drivers of Tropical Deforestation.” PLoS ONE 8(1): e54310.
Ballvé, Teo. 2013. "Grassroots Masquerades: Development, paramilitaries, and land laundering in Colombia." Geoforum 50:62–75.
Bagley, Bruce Michael. 1991. “Myths of Militarization: The Role of the Military in the War on Drugs in the Americas.” Pp. 1-37 in Drug Trafficking in the Americas Series. Miami: North-South Center, University of Miami.
BBC News. 2013. “Colombia Peace Talks Resume in Cuba.” London: BBC News. Retrieved online July 11, 2013 (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-22853611).
Benachour, Nora and Gilles-Eric Seralini. 2009. “Glyphosate Formulations Induce Apoptosis and Necrosis in Human Umbilical, Embryonic, and Placental Cells.” Chemical Research in Toxicology 22: 97-105.
Bejarano, Ana Maria and Eduardo Pizarro. 2005. “From ‘Restricted’ to ‘Besieged’: The Changing Nature of the Limits to Democracy in Colombia.” Pp. 235-260 in The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks, edited by F. Hagopian and Scott P. Mainwaring. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bonds, Eric. 2013. “Hegemony and Humanitarianism Norms: The US Legitimization of Toxic Violence.” Journal of World-Systems Research 19(1): 82-106.
Brodzinsky, Sibylla. 2014. “FARC Peace Talks May Tip Balance in Tight Colombian Presidential Race. The Guardian (May 22, 2014).
Brittain, James. 2010. Revolutionary Social Change in Colombia: The Origin and Direction of the FARC-EP. New York: Pluto Press.
Bunker, Stephen. 2005. “How Ecologically Uneven Developments Put the Spin on the Treadmill of Production.” Organization Environment 18: 38-54.
Burke, Tom. 2003. “Warning: Drugs Cost the Earth.” New Statesman 132: 31.
Buxton, Julia. 2006. The Political Economy of Narcotics: Production, Consumption and Global Markets. London/New York: Zed Books.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher. 2013. “Five Linked Crises in the Contemporary World-System.” Journal of World-System Research 19(2): 175-181.
Ciccantell, Paul and David A. Smith. 2009. “Rethinking Global Commodity Chains: Integrating Extraction, Transport, and Manufacturing.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50: 361-384.
Clark, Brett and Andrew K. Jorgenson. 2012. “The Tread*mill of Destruction and the Environmental Impacts of Militaries.” Sociology Compass 6/7: 557-569.
Clelland, Donald. 2014. “The Core of the Apple: Dark Value and Degrees of Monopoly in Global Commodity Chains.” Journal of World System Research 20:82-111.
Collier, Paul. 2008. The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press.
Congressional Research Service. 2011. “Latin America and the Caribbean: Illicit Drug Trafficking and U.S. Counterdrug Programs.” Retrieved July 11, 2013
Count the Costs. 2011. “The War on Drugs: Causing Deforestation and Pollution.” Count the Costs Environment Briefing. Retrieved January 4, 2012 (http://countthecosts.org/seven-costs/deforestation-and-pollution).
Davalos, Liliana M., Adriana C. Bejarano, and H. Leonardo Corea. 2009. “Disabusing Cocaine: Pervasive Myths and Enduring Realities of a Globalized Commodity.” International Journal of Drug Policy 20: 381-386.
Davalos, Liliana M., Adriana Bejarano, Mark A. Hall, H. Leonardo Correa, Angelique Corthals, and Oscar J. Espejo. 2011. “Forests and Drugs: Coca-Driven Deforestation in Tropical Hotspots.” Environmental Science and Technology 45: 1219-1227.
De Liz Oliveira Cavalli, Vera, Daiane Cattani, Carla Elise Heinz Rieg, Paula Pierozan, Leila Zanatta, Eduardo Benedetti Parisotto, Danilo Wilhelm Filho, Fatima Regina Mena Barreto Silva, Regina Pessoa-Pureur, and Ariane Zamoner. 2013. “Roundup Disrupts Male Reproductive Function by Triggering Calcium-Mediated Cell Death in Rat Testis and Sertoli Cells.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 65: 335-346.
Dombey-Moore, Bonnie, Susan Resetar, and Michael Childress. 1994. A System Description of the Cocaine Trade. Santa Monin, CA; Rand Corporation.
Dube, Oeindrila and Suresh Naidu. 2010. “Bases, Bullets, and Ballots: The Effect of U.S. Military Aid on Political Conflict in Colombia.” Center for Global Development. Working Paper 197, Janurary 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2012 (http://www.cgdev.org/files/1423498_file_Dube_Naidu_Military_Aid_FINAL.pdf).
Duffy, Gary. 2008. “First Coca Find in Brazil Amazon.” BBC News. Retrieved May 25, 2014 (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7299964.stm).
The Economist. 2013. “Why is Less Cocaine Coming from Colombia?” The Economist. Retrieved March 5, 2014 (http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/04/economist-explains-why-colombia-produces-less-cocaine).
Etter, Andres, Clive McAlpine, Kerrie Wilson, Stuart Phinn, Hugh Possingham. 2006. “Regional Patterns of Agricultural Land Use and Deforestation in Colombia.” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114: 369-386.
Eraso, Nelly Rodriguez, Dolors Armenteras-Pascual, and Javier Retana Alumbreros. 2012. “Land Use and Land Cover Change in Colombian Andes: Dynamics and Future Scenarios.” Journal of Land Use Science DOI: 10.1080: 1-21.
Fjeldsa, Jon, Maria D. Alvarez, Juan Mario Lazcano, and Blanca Leon. 2005. “Illicit Crops and Armed Conflict as Constraints on Biodiversity Conservation in the Andes Region.” Ambio 34(3): 205-211.
Gasnier, Eline, Coraline Dumont, Nora Benachour, Emilie Clair, Marie-Christine Chagnon, and Gilles-Eric Seralini. 2009. “Glyphosate-base Herbicides are Toxic and Endocrine Disruptors in Human Cell Lines.” Toxicology 262: 184-191.
Gould, Kenneth A., David N. Pellow, and Allan Schnaiberg. 2008. The Treadmill of Production: Injustices and Unsustainability in the Global Economy. Boulder, Colorado: Paradigm Publishers.
Guerrero Baron, Javier, and David Mond. 2001 “Is the War Ending? Premises and Hypotheses with Which to View the Conflict in Colombia.” Latin American Perspectives 28(1): 12-30.
Hellin, Jon. 2001. “Coca Eradication in the Andes: Lessons from Bolivia.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 12(2):139-57.
Holmes, Jennifer S., Gutierrez De Pineres, Sheila Amin, and Kevin M. Curtain. Guns, Drugs, and Development in Colombia. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.
Hooks, Gregory, and Chad L. Smith. 2004. "The Treadmill of Destruction: National Sacrifice Areas and Native Americans.” American Sociological Review 69:558-76.
----. 2005. “Treadmills of Production and Destruction: Threats to the Environment Posed by Militarism.” Organizations and Environment 18:19-37.
----. 2012. “The Treadmill of Destruction Goes Global: Anticipating the Environmental Impact of Militarism in the 21st Century.” Pp. 60-83 in The Marketing of War in the Age of Neo-Militarism, edited by Kostas Gouliamos and Christos Kassimeris. Routledge Press.
Hopkins, Terence and Wallerstein, Immanuel 1982. World-Systems Analysis: Theory and Methodology. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hough, Phillip. 2011. “Guerrilla Insurgency as Organized Crime: Explaining the So-Called ‘Political Involution’ of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia.” Politics & Society 39: 379-414.
Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD, OAS). 2005. The Toxicology of Selected Chemicals Used in the Production and Refining of Cocaine and Heroin: A Tier-two Assessment (D 2005-01). Washington, DC: Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), Organization of American States.
International Crisis Group. 2005. War and Drugs in Colombia (Latin America Report N°11). Brussels: International Crisis Group. Retrieved July 11, 2013 (http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/latin-america-caribbean/andes/colombia/011-war-and-drugs-in-colombia.aspx).
International Crisis Group. 2012. “Colombia: Peace at Last?” Executive Summary and Recommendations. Brussels: International Crisis Group. Retrieved July 11, 2013 (http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/latin-america-caribbean/andes/colombia/045-colombia-peace-at-last.aspx).
Jasper, Raquel, Gabriel Olivo Locatelli, Celso Pilati, and Claudriana Locatelli. 2012. “Evaluation of Biochemical, Hematological and Oxidative Parameters in Mice Exposed to the Herbicide Glyphosate-Roundup®.” Interdisciplinary Toxicology 5(3): 133-140.
Jorgenson, Andrew. 2005. “Unpacking International Power and the Ecological Footprints of Nations: A Quantitative Cross-National Study.” Sociological Perspectives 48:383–402.
Jorgenson, Andrew and Brett Clark. 2009. “The Economy, Military, and Ecologically Unequal Relationships in Comparative Perspective: A Panel Study of the Ecological Footprints of Nations, 1975-2000.” Social Problems 56:621-646.
Jorgenson, Andrew, Brett Clark, and Jeffrey Kentor. 2010. “Militarization and the Environment: A Panel Study of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and the Ecological Footprints of Nations, 1970–2000.” Global Environmental Politics 10:7-29.
Kaldor, Mary. 1999. New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Leitenberg, Milton. 2006. “Deaths and Wars in Conflicts in the 20th Century.” Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, Peace Studies Program. Retrieved May 22, 2012 (http://www.clingendael.nl/publications/2006/20060800_cdsp_occ_leitenberg.pdf).
Lengefeld, Michael and Chad L. Smith. 2013. “Nuclear Shadows: Weighing the Environmental Effects of Militarism, Capitalism, and Modernization in a Global Context, 2001-2007.” Human Ecology Review 20(1): 11-25.
Mabry, Donald. 1988. “The US Military and the War on Drugs in Latin America.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 30(2/3): 53-76.
Maloney, Anastasia. 2013. “Ten Things You Didn’t Know about Colombia’s Peace Talks.” Thomas Reuters Foundation. Retrieved July 11, 2013 (http://www.trust.org/item/20130705105455-b396j).
Mann, Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mejía, Daniel, and Carlos Posada. 2008. Cocaine Production and Trafficking: What Do We Know? (Policy Research Working Paper 4618). Washington, DC: World Bank.
Messina, J. P. and P.L. Delamater. 2006. “Defoliation and the War on Drugs in Putumayo, Colombia.” International Journal of Remote Sensing 27(1): 121-128.
Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo, Martha Patricia Ramirez-Pinilla, and Jorge Luis Fuentes-Lorenzo. 2013. “Toxic, Cytoxic, and Genetoxic Effects of a Glyphosate Formulation (Roundup®SL-Cosmoflux®411F) in the Direct-Developing Frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei.” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 54: 362-373.
Mugge, Zachary. 2004. “Plan Colombia: The Environmental Effects and Social Costs of the United States’ Failing War on Drugs.” Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 15(2): 309-340.
Nobre, Carlos, Piers J. Sellers, Jagadish Shukla. 1991. “Amazonian Deforestation and Regional Climate Change” Journal of Climate 4: 956-988.
Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2012. “Survey Shows Significant Drop in Cocaine Production in Colombia.” Retrieved August 1, 2012 (http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/news-releases-remarks/survey-shows-significant-drop-in-cocaine-production-in-colombia).
Peceny, Mark and Michael Durnan. 2006. “The FARC’s Best Friend: U.S. Antidrug Policies and the Deepening of Colombia’s Civil War in the 1990s.” Latin American Politics and Society 48(2): 95-116.
Parenti, Christian. 2011. Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence. New York: Nation Books.
Priest, Dana. 2013. Washington Post. "Covert Action in Colombia." Retrieved January 1, 2013 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/sf/investigative/2013/12/21/covert-action-in-colombia/).
Relyea, Rick A. 2005a. “The Impact of Insecticides and Herbicides on the Biodiversity and Productivity of Aquatic Communities.” Ecological Applications 15(2): 618-627.
Relyea, Rick A. 2005b. “The Lethal Impact of Roundup on Aquatic and Terrestrial Amphibians.” Ecological Applications 15(4): 1118-1124.
Relyea, Rick A. 2011. “Amphibians Are Not Ready for Roundup®.” Pp. 267-300 in Wildlife Ecotoxicology: Forensic Approaches, edited by J.E. Elliot, C.A. Bishop, and C. Morrisey. New York: Springer.
Ribot, Jesse. 1998. “Theorizing Access: Forest Profits along Senegal’s Charcoal Commodity Chain.” Development and Change 29: 307-41.
Rice, James. 2007. “Ecological Unequal Exchange: Consumption, Equity, and Unsustainable Structural Relationships within the Global Economy.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 48: 43-72.
Ronderos, Juan G. 2003. “The War on Drugs and the Military: The Case of Colombia.” Pp. 207-236 in Critical Reflections on Transnational Organized Crime, Money Laundering, and Corruption, edited by Margaret E. Beare. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Saab, Bilal Y. and Alexandra W. Taylor. 2009. “Criminality and Armed Groups: A Comparative Study of FARC and Paramilitary Groups in Colombia.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 32: 455-475.
Samsel, Anthony and Stephanie Seneff. 2013. “Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases.” Entropy 15: 1416-1463.
Schnaiberg, Allan. 1980. The Environment: From Surplus to Scarcity. New York: Oxford University Press.
Schnaiberg, Allan and Kenneth A. Gould. 1994. Environment and Society: The Enduring Conflict. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Scott, Peter Dale. 2003. Drugs, Oil and War: The United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
Shandra, John M., Christopher Leckband and Bruce London. 2009. “Ecologically Unequal Exchange and Deforestation: A Cross-National Analysis of Forestry Export Flows.” Organization & Environment 22(3): 293-310.
Shaw, Martin. 2002. “Risk-Transfer Militarism: Small Massacres and the Historic Legitimacy of War.” International Relations 16:343-60.
-----. 2005. The New Western Way of War: Risk-Transfer War and Its Crisis in Iraq. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Solomon, Keith, Arturo Anadon, Gabriel Carrasquilla, Antonio L. Cerdeira, Jon Marchall, and Luz-Helena Sanin. 2007. “Coca and Poppy Eradication in Colombia: Environmental and Human Health Assessment of Aerially Applied Glyphosate.” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 190: 43-125.
Solomon, Keith, E.J.P Marshall, and Gabriel Carrasquilla. 2009. “Human Health and Environmental Risks from the Use of Glyphosate Formulations to Control the Production of Coca in Colombia: Overview and Conclusions.” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A 72: 914-920.
Stokes, Doug. 2001. “Better Lead than Bread? A Critical Analysis of the US’s Plan Colombia.” Civil Wars 4(2): 59-78.
Stokes, Doug. 2005. America’s Other War: Terrorizing Colombia. New York: Zed Books.
Summerfield, Derek. 1991. “The Psychosocial Effects of Conflict in the Third World.” Development in Practice. 1(3): 159-173.
Tenenbaum, David. 2002. “Coca-Killing Controversy.” Environmental Health Perspectives 110(5): A236.
Thongprakaisang, Siriporn, Apinya Thiantanawat, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Tawit Suriyo, and Jutamaad Satayavivad. 2013. “Glypohsate Induces Human Breast Cancer Cells Growth Via Estrogen Receptors.” Food and Chemical Toxicology 59: 129-136.
Tilly, Charles. 1975. “Reflections on the History of European State-Making.” Pp. 3-83 in The Formation of National States in Western Europe, edited by Charles Tilly. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Transnational Institute. 2001. “Vicious Circle: The Chemical and Biological ‘War on Drugs.’” Transnational Institute Report. Retrieved March 2, 2012 (http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/viciouscircle-e.pdf).
United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2010. “Briefing 6: Human Rights and Drug Policy: Crop Eradication.” New York: United Nations Retrieved May 25, 2012 (http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/docs/ngos/IHRA_Colombia44.pdf).
United Nations, Office on Drugs and Crime. 2010. World Drug Report 2010. New York: United Nations. Retrieved March 5, 2014 (http://www.unodc.org/documents/wdr/WDR_2010/World_Drug_Report_2010_lo-res.pdf).
-----. 2012a. “Colombia Coca Cultivation Survey 2011.” New York: United Nations. Retrieved August 1, 2012 (http://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/Colombia/Colombia_Coca_cultivation_survey_2011.pdf).
-----. 2012b. “Colombia Grows Quarter Less Coca Crop, According to UNODC 2012 Survey.” New York: United Nations. Retrieved March 5, 2014 (http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2013/August/colombia-grows-quarter-less-coca-crop-according-to-unodc-2012-survey.html).
United Nations, Human Rights Council. 2013. "Universal Periodic Review: National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21." New York: United Nations. Retrieved January 13, 2013 (http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session23/TF/A-HRC-RES-16-21_en.doc).
United States Department of State. 2002. “Chemicals Used for the Aerial Eradication of Illicit Coca in Colombia and Conditions of Application.” Retrieved August 8, 2013 (http://www.state.gov/j/inl/rls/rpt/aeicc/13234.htm).
United States Department of State. 2003. “Environmental Consequences of the Illicit Coca Trade.” Retrieved May 25, 2012 (http://2001-2009.state.gov/p/inl/rls/fs/3807.htm).
Vaicius, Ingrid and Adam Isacson. 2003. “The ‘War on Drugs’ meets the ‘War on Terror:’ The United States’ Military Involvement in Colombia Climbs to the Next Level.” International Policy Report. Retreived May 29, 2012 (http://www.ciponline.org/images/uploads/publications/0302ipr.pdf).
Walter, Barbara. 2010. Conflict Relapse and the Sustainability of Post-Conflict Peace (World Development Report 2011: Background Paper). Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Retrieved February 25, 2014 (https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/9069/WDR2011_0008.pdf?sequence=1).
Wickham-Crowley ,Timothy P. 1992. Guerrillas & Revolution in Latin America: A Comparative Study of Insurgents and Regimes Since 1956. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Wimmer, Andreas. 2013. Waves of War: Nationalism, State Formation, and Ethnic Exclusion in the Modern World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
York, Richard. 2008. “De-carbonization in Former Soviet Republics, 1992-2000: The Ecological Consequences of De-modernization.” Social Problems 55:370-390.
Young, Kenneth R. 2004 “A Geographical Perspective on Coca/Cocaine Impacts in South America.” Pp. 363-367 in WorldMinds: Geographical Perspectives on 100 Problems, edited by Donald G. Janelle, Barney Warf, and Kathy Hansen. The Netherlands; Kluwer Academic Publishers. Retrieved April 22, 2012 (http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0VxzNQj7feEC&oi=fnd&pg=PA363&dq=Threats+to+Biological+Diversity+Caused+by+Coca/Cocaine+Deforestation+in+Peru&ots=WCO2_beKXH&sig=Qw_lg-w0R4l_lwr-2HpE1KzB5Eg#v=onepage&q=Threats%20to%20Biological%20Diversity%20Caused%20by%20Coca%2FCocaine%20Deforestation%20in%20Peru&f=false).
Zirnite, Peter. 1997. “Reluctant Recruits: The US Military and the War on Drugs.” Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA), Transnational Institute Report, Retrieved March 25, 2012 (http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/Reluctant%20recruits%20report_0.pdf).
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.