The World Ecology of Desalination
From Cold War Positioning to Financialization in the Capitalocene
World-systems scholars are increasingly engaged in issues at the intersection of ecological and economic concerns since the proliferation of debates on the Anthropocene. Recently, the alternative concept of Capitalocene—age of Capital—has emerged to draw attention to the world-ecological disruption of capitalism founded on cheap nature appropriation at ever-emerging extraction zones. This paper extends these discussions to the oceanic frontier, as the latest trend in the abstraction of value from the environment. Based on original archival research conducted in the context of a larger ethnographic project on the politics of industrial desalination—creating potable water from the sea—the article analyzes how this practice emerged in two phases. First, the Cold War opened the ocean as a commodity frontier during the pax Americana. Then, when this technopolitical agenda stagnated, financialization techniques were deployed to appropriate seawater, utilizing a mode of financial engineering—desalination via financialization reinstates the cultural hegemony of the Capitalocene that privileges infrastructure for water supply management solutions. As such, the article highlights the co-production of nature with financial capitalism.
Aalbers, Manuel B. 2020. “Financial Geography III: The Financialization of the City.” Progress in Human Geography 44(3):595-607.
Ahlers, Rhodante, and Vincent Merme. 2016. “Financialization, Water Governance, and Uneven Development.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 3(6):766-74.
Arrighi, Giovanni. 2004. “Spatial and Other ‘Fixes’ of Historical Capitalism.” Journal of World-Systems Research 10(2):527-539.
Ashton, Philip, Marc Doussard, and Rachel Weber. 2012. “The Financial Engineering of Infrastructure Privatization: What are Public Assets Worth to Private Investors?” Journal of the American Planning Association 78(3):300-12.
Associated Press. 2015. “Las Vegas Uncaps Lake Mead's “Third Straw” for Water Supply.” September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 13, 2020 (https://www.cbsnews.com/news/las-vegas-uncaps-lake-meads-third-straw-for-water-supply/).
Bakker, Karen. 2003. An Uncooperative Commodity: Privatizing Water in England and Wales. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
______. 2010. Privatizing Water: Governance Failure and the World's Urban Water Crisis. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Bartley, Tim, and Albert Bergesen. 1997. “World-system Studies of the Environment.” Journal of World-Systems Research 3(3):369-80.
Bauer, Andrew M., and Erle C. Ellis. 2018. “The Anthropocene Divide.” Current Anthropology 59(2):209-27.
Bayliss, Kate. 2014. “The Financialization of Water.” Review of Radical Political Economics 46(3):292-307.
Bergesen, Albert, and Laura Parisi. 1997. “Discovering the Environment.” Journal of World-Systems Research 3(3):364-68.
Bernabé-Crespo, Miguel Borja, Encarnación Gil-Meseguer, and José M. Gómez-Espín. 2019. “Desalination and Water Security in Southeastern Spain.” Journal of Political Ecology 26(1):486-99.
Bresnihan, Patrick. 2016. “The Bio-financialization of Irish Water: New Advances in the Neoliberalization of Vital Services.” Utilities Policy 40:115-24.
Bruns, Antje, and Fanny Frick. 2014. “The Notion of the Global Water Crisis and Urban Water Realities.” Pp. 415-426 in The Global Water System in the Anthropocene, edited by A. Bhaduri, J. Bogardi, J. Leentvar, and S. Marx. New York: Springer.
Butts, Rachel, and Stephen Gasteyer. 2011. “Environmental Reviews & Case Studies: More Cost per Drop: Water Rates, Structural Inequality, and Race in the United States—The Case of Michigan.” Environmental Practice 13(4):386-95.
Burawoy, Michael. 1998. “The Extended Case Method.” Sociological Theory, 16(1): 4-33.
Burawoy, Michael, Alice Burton, Ann Arnett Ferguson, Kathryn J. Fox, Joshua Gamson, Nadine Gartrell, Leslie Hurst, Charles Kurzman, Leslie Salzinger, Josepha Schiffman, and Shiori Ui. 1991. Ethnography Unbound: Power and Resistance in the Modern Metropolis. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Burawoy, Michael, Joseph A. Blum, Sheba George, Zsuzsa Gille, Teresa Gowan, Lynne Haney, Maren Klawiter, Steven H. Lopez, Sean O'Riain, and Millie Thayer. 2000. Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections, and Imaginations in a Postmodern World. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Campbell, Anne C., and Christopher A. Scott. 2011. “Water Reuse: Policy Implications of a Decade of Residential Reclaimed Water Use in Tucson, Arizona.” Water International 36(7):908-23.
Carroll, Patrick. 2012. “Water and Technoscientific State Formation in California.” Social Studies of Science 42(4):489-516.
Castree, Noel, and Brett Christophers. 2015. “Banking Spatially on the Future: Capital Switching, Infrastructure, and the Ecological Fix." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 105(2):378-86.
Chow, Jeremy. 2018. “Gold Is the New Green: Thinking Environmental Shame in Drought Times.” Resilience: A Journal of the Environmental Humanities 6(1):1-26.
Coval, Joshua, Jakub Jurek, and Erik Stafford. 2009. “The Economics of Structured Finance.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 23(1):3-25.
Crutzen, P.J., and Stoermer E. 2000/2010. Have We Entered the “Anthropocene”? IGBP's Global Change Newsletter 41. Retrieved February 13, 2020 (http://www.igbp.net/news/opinion/opinion/haveweenteredtheanthropocene.5.d8b4c3c12bf3be638a8000578.html).
Crutzen, Paul J. 2002. “The Anthropocene.” Journal de Physique IV (Proceedings) 12(10):1-5. EDP sciences.
David B. Brooks, and Oliver M. Brandes. 2011. “Why a Water Soft Path, Why Now and What Then?” International Journal of Water Resources Development 27(2):315-44.
David, Paul A. 2007. “Path Dependence: A Foundational Concept for Historical Social Science.” Cliometrica 1(2):91-114.
Davis, Gerald F. and Suntae Kim. 2015. “Financialization of the Economy.” Annual Review of Sociology 41:203-221.
Davis, Janae, Alex A. Moulton, Levi Van Sant, and Brian Williams. 2019. “Anthropocene, Capitalocene,…Plantationocene?: A Manifesto for Ecological Justice in an Age of Global Crises.” Geography Compass 13(5):e12438.
Deckard, Sharae. 2016. “World-Ecology and Ireland: The Neoliberal Ecological Regime.” Journal of World-systems Research 22(1):145-176.
Deckard, Sharae. 2019. “Water shocks: Neoliberal Hydrofiction and the Crisis of ‘Cheap Water.’”Atlantic Studies 16(1):108-125.
De Graaff, Naná, and Bastiaan Van Apeldoorn. 2011. “Varieties of US Post-Cold War Imperialism: Anatomy of a Failed Hegemonic Project and the Future of US Geopolitics.” Critical Sociology 37(4):403-27.
Dill, Brian, and Ben Crow. 2014. “The Colonial Roots of Inequality: Access to Water in Urban East Africa.” Water International 39(2):187-200.
Dill, Brian. 2010. “Public–public Partnerships in Urban Water Provision: The Case of Dar es Salaam.” Journal of International Development 22(5):611-24.
Ekers, Michael, and Scott Prudham. 2017. “The Mmetabolism of Ssocioecological Ffixes: Capital Sswitching, Sspatial Ffixes, and the Pproduction of Nnature.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 107(6): 1370-88.
Elimelech, Menachem, and William A. Phillip. 2011. “The Future of Seawater Desalination: Energy, Technology, and the Environment.” Science 333 (6043): 712-717.
Ellis, Erle, Mark Maslin, Nicole Boivin, and Andrew Bauer. 2016. “Involve Social Scientists in Defining the Anthropocene.” Nature 540(7632): 192-193.
Environmental Protection Agency. 2020. Water Conservation at EPA. Retrieved August 13, 2020. (https://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/water-conservation-epa).
Fainstein, Susan S. 2008. “Mega‐projects in New York, London and Amsterdam.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32(4):768-85.
Finnerty, John D. 2007. Project Financing: Asset-based Financial Engineering. Vol. 386. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Foster, John Bellamy, and Hannah Holleman. 2014. “The Theory of Unequal Ecological Exchange:Aa Marx-Odum Dialectic.” Journal of Peasant Studies 41(2): 199-233.
Foster, John Bellamy. 1999. “Marx's Theory of Metabolic Rift: Classical Foundations for Environmental Sociology.” American Journal of Sociology 105(2):366-405.
Fourcade, Marion. 2011. “Cents and Sensibility: Economic Valuation and the Nature of ‘Nature’.” American Journal of Sociology 116(6):1721–77.
Franchini, Matías, Eduardo Viola, and Ana Flávia Barros-Platiau. 2017. “The Challenges of the Anthropocene: From International Environmental Politics to Global Governance.” Ambiente & Sociedade 20(3):177-202.
Gandy, Matthew. 2014. The Fabric of Space: Water, Modernity, and the Urban Imagination. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Gerlak, Andrea K., Lily House-Peters, Robert G. Varady, Tamee Albrecht, Adriana Zúñiga-Terán, Rafael Routson de Grenade, Christina Cook, and Christopher A. Scott. 2018. “Water Security: A Review of Place-based Research.” Environmental Science & Policy 82:79-89.
Gille, Zsuzsa. 2000. “Cognitive Cartography in a European Wasteland: Multinational Capital and Greens Vie for Village Allegiance.” Pp. 240-267 in Global Ethnography: Forces, Connections, and Imaginations in a Postmodern World, edited by M. Burawoy, J.A. Blum, S. George, Z. Gille, T. Gowan, L. Haney, M. Klawiter, S.H. Lopez, S. O'Riain, and M. Thayer. Berkeley: University of California Press.
______. 2010. “Actor Networks, Modes of Production, and Waste Regimes: Reassembling the Macro-social.” Environment and Planning A 42(5):1049-64.
Gleick, Peter H. 2003. “Global Freshwater Resources: Soft-path Solutions for the 21st Century.” Science 302(5650): 1524-28.
______. 2018. “Transitions to Freshwater Sustainability.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115(36):8863-71.
Goldman, Michael. 2011. “Speculative Urbanism and the Making of the Next World City.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 35(3):555-81.
Haddad, Brent M. 2013. “A Case for an Ecological-economic Research Program for Desalination.” Desalination 324:72-78.
Haraway, Donna, Noboru Ishikawa, Scott F. Gilbert, Kenneth Olwig, Anna L. Tsing, and Nils Bubandt. 2016. “Anthropologists are Talking–about the Anthropocene.” Ethnos 81(3): 535-564.
Harris, Edwyna. 2011. “The Impact of Institutional Path Dependence on Water Market Efficiency in Victoria, Australia.” Water Resources Management 25(15): 4069-80.
Hecht, Gabrielle. 1998. The Radiance of France: Nuclear Power and National Identity after World War II. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Ingram, Helen, and Leah Fraser. 2006. “Path Dependency and Adroit Innovation: The Case of California Water.” Pp. 78-109 in Punctuated Equilibrium and the Dynamics of US Environmental Policy, edited by R. Repetto. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Johnston, Sean F. 2018. “Alvin Weinberg and the Promotion of the Technological Fix.” Technology and Culture 59(3):620-51.
Jones, Edward, Manzoor Qadir, Michelle T.H. van Vliet, Vladimir Smakhtin, and Seong-mu Kang. 2019. The State of Desalination and Brine Production: A Global Outlook. Science of the Total Environment, 657:1343-56.
Jorgenson, Andrew K. 2005. “Unpacking International Power and the Ecological Footprints of Nations: A Quantitative Cross-national Study.” Sociological Perspectives 48(3):383-402.
______. 2012. “The sociology of Ecologically Unequal Exchange and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1960–2005.” Social Science Research 41(2): 242-252.
______. 2016. “Environment, Development, and Ecologically Unequal exchange.” Sustainability 8(3):227.
Jorgenson, Andrew K. and Brett Clark. 2009. “The Economy, Military, and Ecologically Unequal Exchange Relationships in Comparative Perspective: A Panel Study of the Ecological Footprints of Nations, 1975-2000.” Social Problems 56(4):621-46.
Karagiannis, Ioannis C., and Petros G. Soldatos. 2008. “Water Desalination Cost Literature: Review and Assessment.” Desalination 223(1-3):448-56.
Kellner, Doiglas. 2001. “Globalisation, Technopolitics and Revolution.” Theoria 48(98):14-34.
Kennedy, John F. 1961. “Remarks Upon Activating by Remote Control The Saline Water Conversion Plant at Freeport, Texas, 21 June 1961.” Retrieved August 13, 2020. (https://www.jfklibrary.org/asset-viewer/archives/JFKWHA/1961/JFKWHA-040-003/JFKWHA-040-003).
Kress, Nurit, Yaron Gertner, and Efrat Shoham-Frider. 2020. “Seawater Quality at the Brine Discharge Site from Two Mega Size Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants in Israel (Eastern Mediterranean).” Water Research 171:115402.
Krings, Amy, Dana Kornberg, and Erin Lane. 2018. “Organizing Under Austerity: How Residents’ Concerns became the Flint Water Crisis.” Critical Sociology. 45(4-5): 583-597.
Krippner, Greta R. 2005. “The Financialization of the American Economy.” Socio-economic Review 3(2):173-208.
Kummu, Matti, J. H. A. Guillaume, Hans de Moel, S. Eisner, Martina Flörke, Miina Porkka, Stefan Siebert, Ted IE Veldkamp, and Philip J. Ward. “The World’s Road to Water Scarcity: Shortage and Stress in the 20th Century and Pathways towards Sustainability.” Scientific Reports 6(38495).
Langley, Paul. 2018. “Frontier Financialization: Urban Infrastructure in the United Kingdom.” Economic Anthropology 5(2):172-84.
Larson, Rhett B. 2012. “Innovation and International Commons: The Case of Desalination Under International Law.” Utah Law Review 2(2): 759-813.
Libecap, Gary D. 2011. “Institutional Path Dependence in Climate Adaptation: Coman's ‘Some Unsettled Problems of Irrigation’.” American Economic Review 101(1):64-80.
Lidskog, R. and Waterton, C. 2016. “Anthropocene–A Cautious Welcome from Environmental Sociology?” Environmental Sociology 2(4):395-406.
Linton, Jamie, and Jessica Budds. 2014. “The Hydrosocial Cycle: Defining and Mobilizing a Relational-dialectical Approach to Water.” Geoforum 57:170-80.
Linder, Stephen H. 1999. “Coming to Terms with the Public-private Partnership: A Grammar of Multiple Meanings.” American Behavioral Scientist 43(1):35-51.
Loftus, Alex. 2009. “Rethinking Political Ecologies of Water.” Third World Quarterly 30(5): 953-968.
Loftus, Alex, and Hug March. 2016. “Financializing Desalination: Rethinking the Returns of Big Infrastructure.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 40(1):46-61.
Loftus, Alex, Hug March, and Thomas F. Purcell. 2019. “The Political Economy of Water Infrastructure: An Introduction to Financialization.” Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 6(1):e1326.
Lokiec, Fredi. 2011. Sorek 150 million m3/year seawater desalination facility build, operate and transfer (BOT) project. Paper presented at the IDA World Congress, Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre (PCEC), Perth, 4–9 September 2011, IDA World Congress - Perth, West. Aust. Sept. 4-9, 2011: 1–15. Retrieved July 29, 2020 (https://www.ide-tech.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Sorek-150-Million-m3year-Seawater-Desalination-Facility-Build-Operate-and-Transfer-BOT-Project.pdf).
Lorrain, Dominique, and Franck Poupeau, eds. 2016. Water Regimes: Beyond the Public and Private Sector Debate. New York: Routledge.
Lövbrand, Eva, Johannes Stripple, and Bo Wiman. 2009. “Earth System Governmentality: Reflections on Science in the Anthropocene.” Global Environmental Change 19(1): 7-13.
Low, Michael Christopher. 2020. “Desert Dreams of Drinking the Sea, Consumed by the Cold War: Transnational Flows of Desalination and Energy from the Pacific to the Persian Gulf.” Environment and History 26(2):145-74.
Mack, Elizabeth A., and Sarah Wrase. 2017. “A Burgeoning Crisis? A Nationwide Assessment of the Geography of Water Affordability in the United States.” PloS one 12(1): e0169488.
Marshall, Graham R. and Jason Alexandra. 2016. “Institutional Path Dependence and Environmental Water Recovery in Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin.” Water Alternatives 9(3):679-703.
Mascarenhas, Michael. 2007. “Where the Waters Divide: First Nations, Tainted Water and Environmental Justice in Canada.” Local Environment 12(6):565-77.
______. 2017. New Humanitarianism and the Crisis of Charity: Good Intentions on the Road to Help. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
______. 2018. “A Precarious Confluence.” Kalfou 5(2):232-50.
Meehan, Katie M., and Annie W. Moore. 2014. “Downspout politics, Upstream Conflict: Formalizing Rainwater Harvesting in the United States.” Water International 39(4):417-30.
Miller, DeMond Shondell and Nyjeer Wesley. 2016. “Toxic Disasters, Biopolitics, and Corrosive Communities: Guiding Principles in the Quest for Healing in Flint, Michigan.” Environmental Justice 9(3):69-75.
Mitchell, T., 2002. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-politics, Modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Moore, Jason W. 2000. “Environmental Crises and the Metabolic Rift in World-historical Perspective.” Organization & Environment 13(2):123-57.
______. 2011. “Ecology, Capital, and the Nature of Our Times: Accumulation and Crisis in the Capitalist World-ecology.” Journal of World-Systems Research 17(1):107-46.
______. 2015. Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital. New York: Verso Books.
______. (ed). 2016. Anthropocene or Capitalocene? Nature, History, and the Crisis of Capitalism. Oakland: PM Press.
______. 2017. “The Capitalocene, Part I: On the Nature and Origins of our Ecological Crisis.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 44(3):594-630.
______. 2018. “The Capitalocene Part II: Accumulation by Appropriation and the Centrality of Unpaid Work/energy.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 45(2):237-79.
Montag, Coty. 2019. “Water/Color: A Study of Race & The Water Affordability Crisis in America’s Cities. A Report by The Thurgood Marshall Institute at The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.” Retrieved July 25, 2020 (https://www.naacpldf.org/wp-content/uploads/Water_Report_Executive-Summary_5_21_19_FINAL-V2.pdf).
National Archives and Research Administration, College Park Maryland (NARA). Records of the Office of Saline Water - Record Group (RG) 380. Retrieved November 6-15, 2019. (https://www.archives.gov).
O'Connor, James. 1988. “Capitalism, Nature, Socialism: A Theoretical Introduction.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 1(1):11-38.
O'Neill, Phillip M. 2009. “Infrastructure Financing and Operation in the Contemporary City.” Geographical Research 48(1):3-12.
Obertreis, Julia, Timothy Moss, Peter Mollinga, and Christine Bichsel. 2016. “Water, Infrastructure and Political Rule: Introduction to the Special Issue”.” Water Alternatives 9(2):168-81.
Pacewicz, Josh. 2016. “The City as a Fiscal Derivative: Financialization, Urban Development, and the Politics of Earmarking.” City & Community 15(3):264-88.
Palazzo, Joseph, Owen R. Liu, Timbo Stillinger, Runsheng Song, Ying Wang, Elizabeth H.T. Hiroyasu, Jose Zenteno, Sarah Anderson, and Christina Tague. 2017. “Urban Responses to Restrictive Conservation Policy during Drought." Water Resources Research 53(5): 4459-75.
Patel, Raj and Moore, Jason W., 2017. A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things: A Guide to Capitalism, Nature, and the Future of the Planet. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Patrick, Robert J. 2011. “Enhancing Water security in Saskatchewan, Canada: An Opportunity for a Water Soft Path." Water International 36(6): 748-763.
Pauli, Benjmin J. 2019. Flint Fights Back: Environmental Justice and Democracy in the Flint Water Crisis. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Perramond, Eric P. 2019. Unsettled Waters: Rights, Law, and Identity in the American West. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Peter H. Gleick and Meena Palaniappan. “Peak Water Limits to Freshwater Withdrawal and Use.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. June 22, 2010 107(25): 11155-62. Retrieved February 14, 2020 (https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1004812107).
Pierce, Gregory, Nicholas Chow, Kyra Gmoser-Daskalakis, Peter Roquemore, Nichole Heil. 2019. “Analyzing Southern California Supply Investments from a Human Right to Water Perspective: The Proposed Poseidon Ocean Water Desalination Plant in Orange County.” April. Retrieved February 14, 2020 (https://innovation.luskin.ucla.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Analyzing_Southern_CA_Supply_Investments_from_a_Human_Right_to_Water_Perspective.pdf).
Pierson, Paul. 2000. “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence, and the Study of Politics” American Political Science Review 94(2):251-68.
Pitluck, Aaron Z. 2012. “The Silence of Finance and its Critics: Portfolio Investors in the World-System.” Pp. 206-14 in Routledge International Handbook of World-Systems Analysis edited by S.J. Babones, and C.K. Chase-Dunn. New York: Routledge.
Pitluck, Aaron Z., Fabio Mattioli, and Daniel Souleles. 2018. “Finance Beyond Function: Three Causal Explanations for Financialization.” Economic Anthropology 5(2):157-71.
Pitman, A.J. 2005. On the Role of Geography in Earth System Science. Geoforum 36(2):137-48.
Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation. Boston: Beacon Press.
Poupeau, Franck. 2014. “From Private to Public: Challenges in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.” Pp. 225-40 in Globalized Water: A Question of Governance edited by G. Schneier-Madanes. Dordrecht: Springer.
Poupeau, Franck, and Sébastien Hardy. 2017. “The Social Conditions of Self-organized Utilities: Water Cooperatives in La Paz and El Alto, Bolivia.” Water International 42(1):73-91.
Poupeau, Franck, Lala Razafimahefa, Jérémy Robert, Delphine Mercier, Gilles Massardier, and Pedro Jacobi. 2018 “Water Conflicts Hydrocracy in the Americas: Coalitions, Networks, Policies.” Sao Paolo: University of Sao Paolo Press.
Pryke, Michael, and John Allen. 2019 “Financialising Urban Water Infrastructure: Extracting Local Value, Distributing Value Globally.” Urban Studies 56(7): 1326-46.
Rockström, Johan, Malin Falkenmark, Tony Allan, Carl Folke, Line Gordon, Anders Jägerskog, Matti Kummu et al. “The Unfolding Water Drama in the Anthropocene: Towards a Resilience‐based Perspective on Water for Global Sustainability.” Ecohydrology 7(5): 1249-1261.
Rockström, Johan, Will Steffen, Kevin Noone, Åsa Persson, F. Stuart Chapin III, Eric F. Lambin, Timothy M. Lenton et al. 2009. “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.” Nature 461(7263):472.
Roller Z, Gasteyer S, Nelson N, Lai W, Shingne M. 2019. “Closing the Water Access Gap in the United States: A National Action Plan. Washington, DC: Dig Deep and U.S. Water Alliance.” Retrieved on July 25, 2020 (http://uswateralliance.org/ sites/uswateralliance.org/files/Closing%20the%20Water%20Access% 20Gap%20in%20the%20United%20States_DIGITAL.pdf).
Sassen, Saskia. 2013. “Land grabs Today: Feeding the Disassembling of National Territory.” Globalizations 10(1):25-46.
Schneider, Mindi, and Philip McMichael. 2010. “Deepening, and Repairing, the Metabolic Rift.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 37(3):461-84.
Schroering, Caitlin. 2019. “Water is a Human Right! Grassroots Resistance to Corporate Power.” Journal of World-Systems Research 25(1):28-34.
Sclar, Elliott. 2015. “The Political Economics of Investment Utopia: Public–private Partnerships for Urban Infrastructure Finance.” Journal of Economic Policy Reform 18(1):1-15.
Scott, Dane. 2011. “The Technological Fix Criticisms and the Agricultural Biotechnology Debate.” Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24(3):207-26.
Sehring, Jenniver. 2009. “Path Dependencies and Institutional Bricolage in Post‐Soviet Water Governance. Water Alternatives 2(1):61‐81.
Shoffstall, Grant, and Zsuzsa Gille. 2015. “From the Nano to the Global Scale: New Utopian Solutions to Food Waste.” Pp. 35-56 in Food Utopias: Reimagining Citizenship, Ethics and Community edited by P.V. Stock, M. Carolan, and C. Rosin. New York: Routledge.
Singla, Akheil, and Martin J. Luby. 2020. “Financial Engineering by City Governments: Factors Associated with the Use of Debt-related Derivatives.” Urban Affairs Review 56(3): 857-87.
Sklair, Leslie. 2019. “World Revolution or Socialism, Community by Community, in the Anthropocene?” Globalizations 16(7):1012-19.
Spaargaren, Gert and Arthur P.J. Mol. 1992. “Sociology, Environment, and Modernity: Ecological Modernization as a Theory of Social Change.” Society and Natural Resources 5(4):323-44.
Speckhahn, Sophia and Ellinor Isgren. 2019. “The Irresistible Solution: Rationale and Risks of Extending Water Limits through Desalination in the Case of Gotland, Sweden.” Journal of Political Ecology 26(1):128-49.
Spronk, Susan, and Jeffery R. Webber. 2007. “Struggles against Accumulation by Dispossession in Bolivia: The Political Economy of Natural Resource Contention.” Latin American Perspectives 34(2):31-47.
Srinivasan, Veena, Eric F. Lambin, Steven M. Gorelick, Bart H. Thompson, and Scott Rozelle. 2012. The Nature and Causes of the Global Water Crisis: Syndromes from a Meta‐Analysis of Coupled Human‐water Studies.” Water Resources Research 48(10). Retrieved February 14, 2020 (https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/2011WR011087).
Steffen, Will, Johan Rockström, Katherine Richardson, Timothy M. Lenton, Carl Folke, Diana Liverman, Colin P. Summerhayes et al. 2018. Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(33):8252-59.
Steffen, Will, Åsa Persson, Lisa Deutsch, Jan Zalasiewicz, Mark Williams, Katherine Richardson, Carole Crumley et al. 2011. “The Anthropocene: From Global Change to Planetary Stewardship.” AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 40(7):739-61.
Steffen, Will, Paul J. Crutzen, and John R. McNeill. 2007. “The Anthropocene: Are Humans now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?” AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment 36(8): 614-622.
Steffen, Will, and Paul J. Crutzen. 2003. “How Long have we been in the Anthropocene Era?” Climatic Change 61(3):251-57.
Sultana, Farhana, and Alex Loftus. 2012. The Right to Water: Politics, Governance and Social Struggles. New York: Routledge.
Swanson, Heather Anne, Nils Bubandt, and Anna Tsing. 2015. “Less than One but More than Many: Anthropocene as Science Fiction and Scholarship-in-the-making.” Environment and Society 6(1):149-66.
Swyngedouw, Erik. 2005. “Dispossessing H2O: The Contested Terrain of Water Privatization.” Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 16(1):81-98.
______. 2013. “Into the Dea: desalination as Hydro-social Fix in Spain.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(2):261-70.
______. 2015. Liquid Power: Contested Hydro-modernities in Twentieth-century Spain. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Tabb, William K. 2007. “The Centrality of Finance.” Journal of World-Systems Research 13(1) (2007):1-11.
Teisch, Jessica B. 2011. Engineering Nature: Water, Development, and the Global Spread of American Environmental Expertise. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Teschner, Naama, Yaakov Garb, and Jouni Paavola. 2013. “The Role of Technology in Policy Dynamics: The Case of Desalination in Israel.” Environmental Policy and Governance 23(2):91-103.
Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt, Nils Bubandt, Elaine Gan, and Heather Anne Swanson, eds. 2017. Arts of Living on a Damaged Planet: Ghosts and Monsters of the Anthropocene. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. 2015. The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
______. “Earth Stalked by Man.” 2016. The Cambridge Journal of Anthropology 34(1): 2-16.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1980. “Maps, Maps, Maps.” Radical History Review. (24): 155-59.
______. 1993. “The World-system After the Cold War.” Journal of Peace Research 30(1)1-6.
______. 2004. World-systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham: Duke University Press.
Walton, John. 1991. Western Times and Water Wars: State, Culture, and Rebellion in California. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Warner, Mildred E. 2013. “Private Finance for Public Goods: Social Impact Bonds.” Journal of Economic Policy Reform 16(4):303-19.
Water Technology. 2016. “U.S. Water Industry Revenues Rise to $160 Billion.” December 6, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2020. (https://www.watertechonline.com/wastewater/article/16205061/us-water-industry-revenues-rise-to-160-billion).
Williams, Gregory P. “Special Contribution: Interview with Immanuel Wallerstein Retrospective on the Origins of World-Systems Analysis.” Journal of World-Systems Research 19(2): 202-10.
Williams, Joe. 2018a. “Diversification or Loading Order? Divergent Water-energy Politics and the Contradictions of Desalination in Southern California.” Water Alternatives 11(3): 847-65.
______. 2018b. “Assembling the Water Factory: Seawater Desalination and the Techno-politics of Water Privatisation in the San Diego–Tijuana Metropolitan Region.” Geoforum 93: 32-9.
Wittfogel, Karl A. 1957. Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Woods, Gwendolyn J., Doosun Kang, Daniel R. Quintanar, Edward F. Curley, Stephen E. Davis, Kevin E. Lansey, and Robert G. Arnold. 2012. “Centralized Versus Decentralized Wastewater Reclamation in the Houghton area of Tucson, Arizona.” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 139(3):313-24.
World Bank Group. 2019. “The Role of Desalination in an Increasingly Water-Scarce World.” Retrieved February 14, 2020 (http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/476041552622967264/pdf/135312-WP-PUBLIC-14-3-2019-12-3-35-W.pdf).
World Bank PPLRC. 2016. “Key Issues in Developing Project Financed Transactions.”
Retrieved July 28, 2020 (https://ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/financing/issues-in-project-financed-transactions).
World Health Organization. “Water. Sanitation, Hygiene.” 2020. Retrieved August 13, 2020. (https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2000-2005-publications/en/).
Worster, Donald. 1985. Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz. 2009. “A Tale of Contrasting Trends: Three Measures of the Ecological Footprint in China, India, Japan, and the United States, 1961-2003.” Journal of World-Systems Research 15(2):134-46.
Zetland, David. 2018. “Society, Politics and Desalination.” Pp. 559–74 in A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Desalination edited by Alireza Bazargan. Delft: River Publishers.
Copyright (c) 2020 Brian Francis O'Neill
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.