Breaking Ships in the World-System: An Analysis of Two Ship Breaking Capitals, Alang-Sosiya, India and Chittagong, Bangladesh
AbstractCentrality in the world-system allows countries to externalize their hazards or environmental harms on others. Core countries, for instance, dump heavy metals and greenhouse gases into the global sinks, and some of the core's hazardous products, production processes and wastes are displaced to the (semi) peripheral zones of the world-system. Since few (semi) peripheral countries have the ability to assess and manage the risks associated with such hazards, the transfer of core hazards to the (semi) periphery has adverse environmental and socio-economic consequences for many of these countries and it has spawned conflict and resistance, as well as a variety of other responses. Most discussions of this risk globalization problem have failed to situate it firmly in the world-system frame emphasizing the process of ecological unequal exchange. Using secondary sources, I begin such a discussion by examining the specific problem of ship breaking (recycling core-based ocean going vessels for steel and other materials) at the yards in Alang-Sosiya, India and Chittagong, Bangladesh. Attention centers on the nature and scope of ship breaking in these two locations, major drivers operating in the world-system, adverse consequences, the unequal mix of costs and benefits, and the failure of existing political responses at the domestic and international levels to reduce adequately the adverse consequences of ship breaking.
Adams, Richard N. 1988. The Eighth Day: Social Evolution as the Self-Organization of Energy.
Austin: University of Texas Press.
Alario, Margarita V. and William R. Freudenburg. 2010. “Titanic Risks Are Not So Titanic
After All.” Sociological Inquiry 80: 500-512.
American Association of Port Authorities. 2008. “World Port Rankings 2008.” Available at
Anonymous. 2008. “Alang Loses Out to Bangladesh.” Seatrade Asia Online (August 28).
_____. 2011. “Scrap Ship Import Gets Further Extension.” The Daily Star (Online Report July
Arrighi, Giovanni, Terrence Hopkins, and Immanuel Wallerstein. 2012. Anti-Systemic
Movements. London: Verso.
Auyero, Javier and Debora Alejandra Swistun. 2009. Flammable: Environmental Suffering in an
Argentine Shantytown. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bahree, Megha. 2014. “Modi Government’s Message to NGOs in India: Big Brother is Watching
You.” Forbes (June 16) Available at http://www.forbes.com.
Bandy, Joe and Jackie Smith, editors. 2005. Coalitions across Borders: Transnational Protest
and the Neoliberal Order. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Basha, Shaik, Premsingh Mansingh Gaur, Ravikumar Bhagwan Thorat,
Rohitkumar Harikrishna Trivedi, Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Nisha Anand,
Shalin Hemantbhai Desai, Kalpana Haresh Mody, and Bhavnath Jha. 2007. “Heavy Metal Content of Suspended Particulate Matter at World’s Largest Ship-Breaking Yard, Alang-Sosiya, India.” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 178: 373-384.
Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.
_____. 1999. World Risk Society. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Bhattacharjee, Saurabh. 2009. “From Basel to Hong Kong: International Environmental Regulation of Ship-Recycling Takes One Step Forward and Two Steps Back.” Trade, Law and Development 1: 193-230.
Bonds, Eric and Liam Downey. 2012. “’Green Technology’ and Ecological Unequal Exchange: The Environemntal and Social Consequences of Ecological Modernization in the World-System.” Journal of World-Systems Research 18: 167-186.
Brecher, Jeremy, Tim Costello, and Brendan Smith. 2000. Globalization from Below: The Power of Solidarity. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.
Buerk, Roland. 2006. Breaking Ships: How Supertankers and Cargo Ships Are Dismantled on
the Shores of Bangladesh. New York: Chamberlain Brothers.
Bullard, Robert D., Glenn S. Johnson, and Angel O. Torres. 2005. “Addressing Global Poverty, Pollution, and Human Rights.” Pp. 279-297 in The Quest for Environmental Justice: Human Rights and the Politics of Pollution, edited by Robert D. Bullard. San Francisco: Sierra Books.
Bunker, Stephen G. 1985. Underdeveloping the Amazon: Extraction, Unequal Exchange, and the
Failure of the Modern State. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
_____. 2007. ”Natural Values and the Physical Inevitability of Uneven Development under Capitalism.” Pp. 239-258 in in Rethinking Environmental History: World-System History and Global Environmental Change, edited by Alf Hornborg, J.R. McNeill, and Joan Martinez-Alier. New York: AltaMira Press.
Bunker, Stephen G. and Paul S. Ciccantell. 2005. Globalization and the Race for
Resources. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Buraway, Michael. 2010. “From Pollyanna: The False Optimism of Global Labor Studies.”
Global Labour Journal 1: 301-313.
Carmin, Jo Ann and Julian Agyeman, editors. 2011. Environmental Inequalities Beyond
Borders: Local Perspectives on Global Injustices. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher. 2002. “Globalization from Below: Toward a Collectively Rational and
Democratic Commonwealth.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 581:48-61.
_____. 2010. “Globalization from Below: Toward a Democratic Global Commonwealth.”
Journal of Globalization Studies 1: 46-57.
Clapp. Jennifer. 2001. Toxic Exports: The Transfer of Hazardous Wastes from Rich to
Poor Countries. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
_____. 2002. “What the Pollution Haven Debate Overlooks.” Global Environmental Politics
Clark, Brett and John Bellamy Foster. 2009. “Ecological Imperialism and the Global Metabolic
Rift: Unequal Exchange and the Guano/Nitrates Trade.” International Journal of
Comparative Sociology 50: 311-334.
Clelland, Donald A. 2014. “The Core of Apple: Dark Value and Degrees of Monopoly in Global
Commodity Chains.” Journal of World-Systems Research 20: 82-111.
Cole, Matthew A. 2004.”Trade, the Pollution Haven Hypothesis and the Environmental Kuznets
Curve: Examining the Linkages.” Ecological Economics 48: 71-81.
Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 2012. Hazardous Trade? An Examination of US
Generated Lead-Acid Battery Exports and Secondary Lead Recycling in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Montreal, Canada: Commission for Environmental Cooperation. Located at http://www.cec.org/Storage/142/16758_SLAB-publicdraft-30Nov_en.pdf
Cudahy, Brian. 2006. Box Boats: How Container Ships Changed the World. New York:
Fordham University Press.
Daly, Herman. 1993. “The Perils of Free Trade.” Scientific American 262: 50-57.
_____. 1996. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston: Beacon Press.
Demaria, Federico. 2010. “Shipbreaking at Alang-Sosiya (India): An Ecological Distribution Conflict.” Ecological Economics 70: 250-260.
Dick, Christopher and Andrew K. Jorgenson. 2011. “Capital Movements and Environmental Harms.” Journal of World-Systems Research 37: 482-497.
Dicken, Peter. 2011. Global Shift: Mapping the Contours of the World Economy. (Sixth Edition.) New York: Guilford Press.
_____. 2015. Global Shift: Mapping the Contours of the World Economy. (Seventh Edition.) New York: Guilford Press.
Dietz, Thomas and Eugene A. Rosa. 1997. “Effects of Population and Affluence on CO2
Emissions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 94: 175-179.
Dietz, Thomas, R. Scott Frey, and Eugene Rosa. 2002. “Technology, Risk, and Society.” Pp.
-369 in Handbook of Environmental Sociology, edited by Riley Dunlap and William Michelson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The Editors. 2007. Editorial. The Economist (June 9): 14.
Ehrlich, Paul R. and John P. Holdren. 1971. “Impact of Population Growth.” Science 171: 1212-
Eskeland, Gunnar S. and Ann E. Harrison. 2003. “Moving to Greener Pastures?: Multinationals
and the Pollution Haven Hypothesis.” Journal of Development Economics 70: 1-23.
European Commission DG Environment. 2009. Support to the Impact Assessment of a New
Legislative Proposal on Ship Dismantling. Kongens Lyngby, Denmark: COWI.
Evans, Peter. 2000. “Fighting Marginalization with Transnational Networks: Counter
Hegemonic Globalization." Contemporary Sociology 29: 230-241.
Faber, Daniel. 2008. Capitalizing on Environmental Injustice: The Polluter-Industrial Complex in the Age of Globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
_____. 2009. “The Unfair Trade-off: Globalization and the Export of Ecological Hazards.” Pp. 181-199 in Environmental Sociology: From Analysis to Action, edited by Leslie King and Deborah McCarty. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Foster, John Bellamy. 2002a. “The Ecological Tyranny of the Bottom Line: The Environmental
and Social Consequences of Economic Reductionism.” Pp. 26-43 in Ecology Against Capitalism, by John Bellamy Foster. New York: Monthly Review Press.
_____. 2002b. “Let Them Eat Pollution: Capitalism in the World Environment.” Pp. 60-
in Ecology Against Capitalism, by John Bellamy Foster. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Foster, John Bellamy, Brett Clark, and Richard York. 2010. The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Foster, John Bellamy and Hannah Holleman. 2014. “The Theory of Unequal Ecological Exchange: A Marx-Odum Dialectic.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 41: 199-233.
Freudenburg, William R. and Robert Gramling. 2011. Blowout in the Gulf: The BP Oilspill Disaster and the Future of Energy in America. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Frey, R. Scott. 1995. “The International Traffic in Pesticides.” Technological Forecasting and Social Change 50: 151-169.
_____. 1998a. “The Hazardous Waste Stream in the World-System.” Pp. 84-103 in Space and Transport in the World-System, edited by Paul Ciccantell and Stephen G. Bunker. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
_____. 1998b. “The Export of Hazardous Industries to the Peripheral Zones of the World-System.” Journal of Developing Societies 14: 66-81.
_____. 2006a “The Flow of Hazardous Exports in the World-System.” Pp. 133-149 in
Globalization and the Environment, edited by Andrew Jorgenson and Edward Kick. Leiden, The Netherlands and Boston: Brill Academic Press.
_____. 2006b. “The International Traffic in Asbestos.” Nature, Society, and Thought 19: 173-
_____. 2012a. “The E-Waste Stream in the World-System.” Journal of Globalization Studies
_____. 2012b. “The Displacement of Hazardous Products, Production Processes, and Wastes in the World-System.” Pp. 440-442. Handbook of World-Systems Analysis: Theory and Research, edited by Salvatore Babones and Christopher Chase-Dunn. New York: Routledge.
______. 2013. “Cigarette Trafficking in the World-System.” Journal of Globalization Studies
Frey, R. Scott, Sabrina McCormick, and Eugene A. Rosa. 2007. “The Sociology of Risk.” Pp.
-87 in The Handbook of 21st Century Sociology, Volume II, edited by Clifton D. Bryant and Dennis Peck. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Funtowicz, Silvio O. and Jerome R. Ravetz. 1994. “The Worth of a Songbird: Ecological
Economics as a Post-Normal Science.” Ecological Economics 10: 197-207.
Gottesfeld, Perry and Amod K. Pokhrel. 2011. “Review: Lead Exposure to Battery
Manufacturing and Recycling in Developing Countries and Among Children in Nearby
Communities.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 8: 520-532.
Gould, Kenneth A., David N. Pellow, and Allan Schnaiberg. 2008. The Treadmill of Production:
Injustice and Unsustainability in the Global Economy. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Gould, Kenneth A., Allan Schnaiberg, and Adam S. Weinberg. 1996. Local Environmental
Struggles: Citizen Activism in the Treadmill of Production. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Greenpeace International. 2000. Shipbreaking: A Global Environmental, Health, and Labour
Challenge. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Greenpeace International.
_____. 2001. Steel and Toxic Wastes for Asia: Findings of a Greenpeace Study on Workplace
and Environmental Contamination in Alang-Sosiya Shipbreaking Yards, Gujarat, India. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Greenpeace International.
Greenpeace International and International Federation for Human Rights. 2005. End of Life
Ships: The Human Cost of Breaking Ships. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Greenpeace International.
Grineski, Sara E., Timothy W. Collins, Maria de Loures Romo Aguilar, and Raed Aldouri. 2010.
“No Safe Place: Environmental Hazards and Injustice along Mexico’s Northern Border.” Social Forces 88: 2241-2266.
Grossman, Gene M. and Alan B. Krueger. 1993. “Environmental Impacts of a North America
Free Trade Agreement.” In The Mexico-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, edited by Peter M. Garber. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
_____. 1995. “Economic Growth and the Environment.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics
Halpern, Benjamin S., Shaun Walbridge, Kimberly A. Selkoe, Carrie V. Kappel, Fiorenza
Micheli, Caterina D’Agrosa, John F. Bruno, Kenneth S. Casey, Colin Ebert, Helen E.
Fox, Rod Fujita, Dennis Heinemann, Hunter S. Leniham, Elizabeth M.P. Madin,
Matthew T. Perry, Elizabeth R. Selig, Mark Spalding, Robert Steneck, and Reg Watson.
“A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems.” Science 319 (15
Harvey, David. 1996. Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. Malden, MA:
_____. 2010. The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hooks, Gregory and Chad L. Smith. 2012. “The Treadmill of Destruction Goes Global: Anticipating the Environmental Impact of Militarism in the 21st Century.” Pp. 60-83 in Stratocracy: Society and the Marketing of War in the Age of Neo-Militarism, edited by Kostas Gouliamos and Christos Kassimeris.
Hornborg, Alf. 1998. “Towards an Ecological Theory of Unequal Exchange: Articulating World System Theory and Ecological Economics.” Ecological Economics 25: 127-136.
_____. 2009. “Zero-Sum Game: Challenges in Conceptualizing Environmental Load Displacement and Ecologically Unequal Exchange.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50: 237-262.
_____. 2011. Global Ecology and Unequal Exchange: Fetishism in a Zero-Sum World. New York: Routledge.
Hossain, M. Maruf and Mohamamad Mahmudul Islam. 2006. Ship Breaking Activities and Its Impact on the Coastal Zone of Chittagong, Bangladesh: Towards Sustainable Development. Chittagong, Bangladesh: Young Power in Social Action.
International Federation for Human Rights. 2002. Where Do the ‘Floating Dustbins’ End Up? Paris: International Federation for Human Rights.
International Federation for Human Rights and Young Power in Social Action. 2008. Child Breaking Yards: Child Labour in the Ship Recycling Industry in Bangladesh. Paris: International Federation for Human Rights.
International Maritime Association. 2011. International Shipping Facts and Figures – Information Resources on Trade, Safety, Security, and the Environment. London: International Maritime Association.
Jorgenson, Andrew K. 2006. “Global Warming and the Neglected Greenhouse Gas: A Cross-
National Study of the Social Causes of Methane Emissions Intensity, 1995.” Social Forces 84: 1779-1799.
Jorgenson, Andrew and Brett Clark, editors. 2009a. “Ecologically Unequal Exchange in Comparative Perspective.” Theme Issue, International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50 (3-4).
_____. 2009b. “The Economy, Military, and Ecologically Unequal Relationships in Comparative Perspective: A Panel Study of the Ecological Footprints of Nations, 1975-2000." Social Problems 56: 621-646.
Karim, Md. Saiful. 2010. “Environmental Pollution from Shipbreaking Industry: International
Law and National Legal Response.” Georgetown International Environmental Law
Review 22: 185-240.
Keck, Margaret and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
Kentor, Jeffrey and Peter Grimes. 2006. “Foreign Investment Dependence and the
Environment: A Global Perspective.” Pp. 61-77 in Globalization and the Environment, edited by Andrew Jorgenson and Edward Kick. Leiden, The Netherlands and Boston: Brill Academic Press.
Kotoky, Aurang. 2015. “Changing Flags to Use India’s Ship Graveyard.” Bloomberg News
(February 12) at www.bloomberg.com/news/articles.
Langewiesche, William. 2004. The Outlaw Sea: Chaos and Crime on the World's Oceans.
New York: North Point Press.
Lerner, Steve. 2010. Sacrifice Zones: The Front Lines of Toxic Chemical Exposure in the United
States. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Levinson, Arik and M. Scott Taylor. 2008. “Unmasking the Pollution Haven Effect.”
International Economic Review 49: 223-254.
Levinson, Marc. 2006. The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the
World Economy Bigger. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Logan, Bernard I. 1991. “An Assessment of the Environmental and Economic Implications of
Toxic-Waste Disposal in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Journal of World Trade 25: 61-76.
Lucier, Cristina A. and Brian J. Gureau. 2014. “Obstacles to Preserving Precaution and Equity in Global Hazardous Waste Regulation: An Analysis of Contested Knowledge in the Basel Convention.” International Environmental Agreements (Published online in September, DOI 10.1007/s10784-014-926-6)
Margai, Florence and Fatoumata B. Barry. 2011. “Global Geographies of Environmental Injustice and Health: A Case Study of Illegal Hazardous Waste Dumping in Côte d’Ivoire.” Pp. 257-281 in Julianna A. Maantay and Sara McLafferty, editors. Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health. New York: Springer.
Martinez-Alier, Joan. 2002. The Environmentalism of the Poor: A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
_____. 2007. “Marxism, Social Metabolism, and International Trade.” Pp. 221-237 in Rethinking Environmental History: World-System History and Global Environmental Change, edited by Alf Hornborg, J.R. McNeill, and Joan Martinez-Alier. New York: AltaMira Press.
_____. 2009. “Social Metabolism, Ecological Distribution Conflicts, and Languages of Valuation.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 20: 58-87.
Mitchell, Robert Cameron and Richard T. Carson. 1989. Using Surveys to Value Public Goods:
The Contingent Valuation Method. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.
Moen, Amy. 2008. “Breaking Basel: The Elements of the Basel Convention and its Application to Toxic Ships.” Marine Policy 32: 1053-1062.
Mol, Arthur P. 2001. Globalization and Environmental Reform: The Ecological Modernization
of the Global Economy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Moore, Jason W. 2000. “Environmental Crises and the Metabolic Rift in World-Historical
Perspective.” Organization and Environment 13: 123-157.
_____. 2007. “Silver, Ecology, and the Origins of the Modern World, 1450-1640.” Pp. 123-142
in Rethinking Environmental History: World-System History and Global Environmental Change, edited by Alf Hornborg, J.R. McNeill, and Joan Martinez-Alier. New York: AltaMira Press.
_____. 2010a. “’Amsterdam is Standing on Norway’ Part I: The Alchemy of Capital,
Empire and Nature in the Diaspora of Silver, 1545-1648.” Journal of Agrarian Change
_____. 2010b. “’Amsterdam is Standing on Norway’ Part II: The Global North Atlantic in the
Ecological Revolution of the Long Seventeenth Century.” Journal of Agrarian Change
_____. 2011a. “Transcending the Metabolic Rift: A Theory of Crises in the Capitalist World-
Ecology.” The Journal of Peasant Studies 38: 1-46.
_____. 2011b. “Ecology, Capital, and the Nature of Our Times: Accumulation & Crisis in the
Capitalist World-Ecology.” Journal of World Systems Research 42:107-146.
Muradian, Roldan and Stefan Giljum. 2007. “Physical Trade Flows of Pollution-Intensive
Products: Historical Trends in Europe and the World.” Pp. 307-325 in Rethinking
Environmental History: World-System History and Global Environmental Change, edited
by Alf Hornborg, J.R. McNeill, and Joan Martinez-Alier. New York: AltaMira Press.
Nixon, Rob. 2011. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press.
Okereke, Chukwumerije. 2008. Global Justice and Neoliberal Environmental Governance:
Ethics, Sustainable Development and International Cooperation. London and New York: Routledge.
Parmar, Vijaysinh. 2012. “Strike in Alang to Protest Arrests of Ship Breakers.” The Times of India (October, 12). Available at www.timesofindia.com.
Pellow, David Naguib. 2007. Resisting Global Toxics: Transnational Movements for Environmental Justice. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
_____. 2011. “Politics by Other Greens: The Importance of Transnational Environmental Justice
Movement Networks.” Pp. 247-266 in Environmental Inequalities Beyond Borders:
Local Perspectives on Global Injustices, edited by Jo Ann Carmin and Julian Agyeman.
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Prew, Paul. 2010. “World-Economy Centrality and Carbon Dioxide Emissions; A New
Look at Position in the Capitalist World-System and Environmental Pollution.” Journal of World-Systems Research 16: 162-191.
Price-Smith, Andrew T. 2001. The Health of Nations: Infectious Diseases, Environmental
Change and the Effects of National Security and Development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Puthucherril, Tony George. 2010. From Shipbreaking to Sustaianable Ship Recycling: Evolution of a Legal Regime. Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
_____. 2011. “Trans-boundary Movement of Hazardous Ships for their Last Rites: Will the Ship Recycling Conventions Make a Difference.” Ocean Yearbook 24: 283-330.
Reddy, M. Srinivasa, Shaik Basha, H.V. Joshi, and G. Ramachandraiah. 2005. “Seasonal Distribution and Conatmination Levels of Total PHCs, PAHs and Heavy Metals in Coastal Waters of the Alang-Sosiya Ship Scrapping Yard, Gulf of Cambay, India.” Chemosphere 61: 1587-1593.
Rice, James. 2007. “Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System.” Social Forces 85: 1369-1392.
_____. 2009. “The Transnational Organization of Production and Uneven Environmental Degradation and Change in the World Economy.” Journal of Comparative International Sociology 50: 215-236.
_____. 2011. “The Global Reorganization and Revitalization of the Asbestos Industry, 1970-2007.” International Journal of Health Sciences 41: 239-254.
Rifkin, Jeremy. 1980. Entropy: A New World View. New York: The Viking Press.
Roberts, J. Timmons, Peter Grimes, and Jodie Manale. 2006. “Social Roots of Global
Environmental Change: A World-Systems Analyis of Carbon Dioxide Emissions.” Pp. 79-117 in Globalization and the Environment, edited by Andrew Jorgenson and Edward Kick. Leiden, The Netherlands and Boston: Brill Academic Press.
Roberts, J. Timmons and Bradley C. Parks. 2007. A Climate of Injustice: Global Inequality,
North-South Politics, and Climate Policy. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press
Robindebois.org. 2008. Special issue. Global statement 2008 of ships sent to demolition.
Available at www.robindesbois.org.
_____. 2009. Special issue. Global statement of 2007 ships sent to demolition. Available at
_____. 2010. 2009 Collection.Shipbreaking.com #15 to 18 – Ships sent to demolition
from January 1st to decembre 31st. Available at www.robindesbois.org.
_____. 2011. 2010 Collection. Shipbreaking.com #19 to 22 – Ships sent to demolition
from January 1 to decembre 31st. Available at www.robindesbois.org.
Robins, Nicholas A. 2011. Mercury, Mining, and Empire: The Human and Ecological Cost of
Colonial Silver Mining in the Andes. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Rousmaniere, Peter and Nikhil Raj. 2007. “Shipbreaking in the Developing World: Problems and
Prospects.” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 13: 359-368.
Sahu, Geetanjoy. 2014. “Workers of Alang-Sosiya: A Survey of Working Conditions in a Ship-
Breaking Yard, 1983-2013.” Economic and Political Weekly 49: 52-59.
Schnaiberg, Allan. 1980. Environment: From Surplus to Scarcity. New York: Oxford University
Shin, Kyoung-ho and Paul S. Ciccantell. 2009 “The Steel and Shipbuilding Industries of South Korea: Rising East Asia and Globalization.” Journal of World Systems Research 15: 167- 192.
Smith, Jackie and Dawn Wiest. 2012. Social Movements in the World-System: The Politics of
Crisis and Transformation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Subramaniam, Mangala. 2015. “Introduction: States and Social Movements in the Modern World-System” Journal of World System Research.
Summers, Lawrence. 1991. Selections from a World Bank Memo. The Economist
(February 8): 66.
Swerts, Thomas. 2013. “The Democratic Deficit of Transnational Environmental Activism: A
Case Study of E-Waste Governance in India.” Global Networks 13: 498-516.
Tewari, A., H. V. Joshi, R. H. Trivedi, V. G. Sravankumar, C. Raghunathan, Y. Khambhaty, O.
S. Kotiwar, and S. K. Mandal. 2001. “The Effect of Ship Scrapping Industry and Its Associated Wastes on the Biomas Production and Biodiversity of Biota in in situ Condition at Alang.” Marine Pollution Bulletin 42: 462-469.
Urry, John. 2014. Offshoring. Cambridge, MA: Polity.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974-2011. The Modern World System. (4 Volumes.) New York: Academic Press.
_____. 2000. The Essential Wallerstein. New York: The New Press.
_____. 2002. "New Revolts Against the System." New Left Review 18
_____. 2004. World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham, NC: Duke University.
World Bank. 2010. Ship Breaking and Recycling Industry in Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Wu, Wei-Te, Yu-Jen Lin, Huei-Sheng Shiue, Chung-Yi Li, Perng-Jy Tsai, Chun-Yuh Yang,
Saou-Hsing Liou, and Trong-Neng Wu. 2014. “Cancer Incidence of Taiwanese Shipbreaking Workers Who Have Been Potentially Exposed to Asbestos.” Environmental Research 132: 370-378.
York, Richard and Eugene A. Rosa. 2003. “Key Challenges to Ecological Modernization
Theory.” Organization and Environment 16: 273-288.
York, Richard, Eugene A. Rosa, and Thomas Dietz. 2003. “A Rift in Modernity? Assessing the Anthropogenic Sources of Global Climate Change with the STIRPAT Model.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 23: 31-51.
York, Richard and Eugene A. Rosa. 2006. “Emissions of Sulpher Dioxide and Nitrogen
Oxides.” Pp. 119-132 in Globalization and the Environment, edited by Andrew Jorgenson and Edward Kick. Leiden, The Netherlands and Boston: Brill Academic Press.
Copyright (c) 2015 R. Scott Frey
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.