Moving toward Theory for the 21st Century: The Centrality of Nonwestern Semiperipheries to World Ethnic/Racial Inequality


  • Wilma A. Dunaway Professor Emerita Virginia Tech
  • Donald A. Clelland Professor Emeritus University of Tennessee



semiperiphery, transnational capitalist class, nonwestern state, ethnicity, race, global apartheid, global inequality


While there has been much attention to the economic, political, and transformative potential of the semiperiphery, scholars have failed to explore the ways in which this zone of the world-system causes, contributes to, and exacerbates world ethnic/racial inequality. By 2015, a majority of the world’s population is concentrated in 41 nonwestern semiperipheries that generate 40 percent of the world Gross Domestic Product. For those reasons, this essay decenters analysis of global ethnic/racial inequality by bringing the nonwestern semiperiphery to the foreground. Part I examines the ascent of nonwestern semiperipheries over the last half century, calling into question the popular “global apartheid model” which posits “white supremacy” as the singular cause of global ethnic/racial inequality. In Part II, we conceptualize, and present empirical data to support, ten conjunctures between the nonwestern semiperipheries and world ethnic/racial inequality. Part III offers a “theoretical retrenchment” in which we call for new approaches that bring the nonwestern semiperiphery to the foreground of theory and research about global ethnic/racial inequality. We argue that future theory building must pay particular attention to the rise of the Asian semiperiphery where two-fifths of world population is concentrated. Drawing upon previous world-systems research, we aggregate and update lists of countries in the core, semiperiphery and periphery in 1960, 1980 and 2015. 

Author Biographies

Wilma A. Dunaway, Professor Emerita Virginia Tech

Professor Emerita

School of Public & International Affairs

Virginia Tech

Donald A. Clelland, Professor Emeritus University of Tennessee

Professor Emeritus
University of Tennessee


Abdel-Malek, Anouar. 1982. Social Dialectics: Civilizations and Social Theory. State University of New York Press, 2 vols.

Alfatooni, Afra and Michael Allen. 1991. “Government Sanctions and Collective Political Protest in Periphery and semiperiphery States: A Time-Series Analysis.” Journal of Political and Military Science 19: 29-45.

Alonso, Ana Maria. 1994. “The Politics of Space, Time and Substance: State Formation, Nationalism, and Ethnicity.” Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 379-405.

Amin, Samir. 1982. “Crisis, Nationalism, and Socialism.” In Dynamics of Global Crisis, ed. Samir Amin et al. Monthly Review Press, 167-232.

-----. 1996. “The Future of Global Polarization.” Social Justice 23 (1/2): 5-13.

-----. 2004. “Globalism or Apartheid on a Global Scale." In The Modern World-System in the Longue Duree, ed. Immanuel Wallerstein. Paradigm Press, 5-30.

-----. 2011. “Transnational Capitalism or Collective Imperialism?” Pambazuka News 522 (23 March),

Anderson-Sherman, Arnold and Doug McAdam. 1982. “American Black Insurgency and the World-Economy: A Political Process Model.” In Ascent and Decline in the World-System, ed. Edward Friedman. Sage, 165-88.

Appadurai, A. 1990. “Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy.” In Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, ed. M. Featherstone. Sage.

Arrighi, Giovanni. 1985. Semiperipheral Development: Politics of Southern Europe in the 20th Century. Sage.

-----. 1990. “The Development Illusion: A Reconceptualization of the Semiperiphery.” In Semiperipheral States in the World-Economy, ed. William Martin. Greenwood Press.

-----. 2007. Adam Smith in Beijing: Lineages of the Twenty-First Century. Verso.

Arrighi, Giovanni and Jessica Drangel. 1986. “The Stratification of the World-Economy: An Exploration of the Semiperipheral Zone.” Review 10 (1): 9-74.

Arrighi, Giovanni, Beverly Silver and Benjamin Brewer. 2003. “Industrial Convergence, Globalization and the Persistence of the North-South Divide.” Studies in Comparative International Development 38 (3).

Arrighi, Giovanni and Beverly Silver, eds. 1999. Chaos and Governance in the Modern World-System. University of Minnesota Press.

Babones, Salvatore and Xi Zhang. 2008. “Heterogeneity in the Global South in the Relationship between Income Inequality and Foreign Trade.” International Review of Modern Sociology 34 (1): 95-108.

Balassa, Bela. 1981. The Newly Industrializing Economies in the World Economy. Pergamon.

Balibar, Etienne and Immanuel Wallerstein. 1991. Race, Nation and Class: Ambiguous Identities. Verso.

Barrett, Richard and Martin Whyte. 1982. “Dependency Theory and Taiwan: A Deviant Case Analysis.”American Journal of Sociology 87: 1064-89.

Baruah, Sanjib. 1994. “The State and Separatist Militancy in Assam.” Asian Survey 34 (10): 863-77.

Bayart, Jean-François Bayart. 1993. The State in Africa: The Politics of the Belly. Longman.

Becker, Uwe, ed. 2013. The BRICS and Emerging Economies in Comparative Perspective: Political Economy, Liberalisation and Institutional Change. Routledge.

Bergesen, Albert and Chintamani Sahoo. 1985. “Evidence of the Decline of American Hegemony in World Production.” Review 8 (4): 595-611.

Bergesen, Albert and John Sonnett. 2001. “The Global 500: Mapping the World Economy at Century’s End.” American Behavioral Scientist 44 (10): 1602-15.

Boatca, Manuela. 2006. “Semiperipheries in the World-System: Reflecting Eastern European and Latin American Experiences.” Journal of World-Systems Research 12 (2): 321-46.

-----. 2015. Global Inequalities beyond Occidentalism. Ashgate.

Boele, Richard , Heike Fabig and David Wheeler. 2001. “Shell, Nigeria and the

Ogoni: A Study in Unsustainable Development.” Sustainable Development 9: 74–86.

Bond, Patrick. 2012. “Financialization, Corporate Power and South African Subimperialism.” In Corporate Power and Globalization in US Foreign Policy, ed. Ronald Cox. Routledge, 114-32.

-----. 2014a.”BRICS and the Tendency to Sub-imperialism.” Pambazuka News (10 April),

-----. 2014b. Elite Transition: From Apartheid to Neoliberalism in South Africa. Pluto Press.

Bond, Patrick and Ana Garcia. 2015. BRICS: An Anticapitalist Critique. Haymarket Books.

Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 1999. “The Essential Fact of Race.” American Sociological Review 64 (6): 899-906.

-----. 2015. “More than Prejudice: Restatement, Reflections, and New Directions in Critical Race Theory.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity 1 (1): 75-89.

Bonnet, Alistair. 2004. The Idea of the West: Culture, Politics and History. PalgraveMacmillan.

Bornschier, Volker et al. 1978. “Cross-National Evidence of the Effects of Foreign Investment and Aid on Economic Growth and Inequality: A Survey of Findings and a Reanalysis.”American Journal of Sociology 84: 651-83.

Bornschier, Volker and Christopher Chase-Dunn, eds. 1999. The Future of Global Conflict. Sage.

Boswell, Terry and Dimitris Stevis. 1997. "Globalization and International Labor Organizing: A World-System Perspective." Work and Occupations 24 (3): 288-308.

Braudel, Fernand. 1972. The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. HarperCollins.

Brautigam, Deborah. 2009. The Dragon’s Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Oxford University Press.

Brown, William and Sophie Harman, eds. 2013. African Agency in International Politics. Routledge.

Bryceson, Cristobal Kay and Jos Mooj, eds. 2000. Disappearing Peasantries: Rural Labour in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Practical Action Publishing.

Burkett, Paul and Martin Hart-Landsberg. 2003. “A Critique of “Catch-up” Theories of Development.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 33 (2): 147-71.

Carmody, Padraig. 2011. The New Scramble for Africa. Polity.

-----. 2013. The Rise of the BRICS in Africa: The Geopolitics of South-South Relations. Zed.

Carroll, William. 2010. Corporate Power in a Globalizing World. Oxford University Press.

Cederman, Lars-Erik, Andreas Wimmer and Brian Min. 2010. “Why Do Ethnic Groups Rebel? New Data and Analysis.” World Politics 62 (1): 87-119.

Charmes, Jacques. 2012. “The Informal Economy Worldwide: Trends and Characteristics.”

Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research 6: 103-32.

Chase-Dunn, Christopher. 1989. Global Formation: Structures of the World-Economy. Basil-Blackwell.

-----. 1990. “Resistance to Imperialism: Semiperipheral Actors.” Review 13: 1-31.

-----. 2013. “Crisis of What? The End of Accumulation or Another Systemic Cycle of Capitalist Accumulation?” IROWS Working Paper # 81,

Chase-Dunn, Christopher and Thomas D. Hall. 1997. Rise and Demise: Comparing World-Systems. Westview Press.

Chase-Dunn,Christopher, Yukio Kawano and Benjamin Brewer. 2000. “Trade Globalization since 1795: Waves of Integration in the World-System.” American Sociological Review 65 (1): 77-95 [country list in the appendix at].

Chase-Dunn, Christopher and Bruce Lerro. 2014. “Democratizing Global Governance: Strateggy and Tactics in Evolutionary Perspective.” In Global Crises and the Challenges of the 21st Century: Antisystemic Movements and the Transformation of the World-System, ed. Tom Reifer. Paradigm, 39-64.

Chase-Dunn,Christopher, Hiroko Inoue, Teresa Neal and Evan Heimlich. 2015. “The Development of World-Systems.” Institute for Research on World-Systems, University of California-Riverside, Working Paper # 86,

Chee-beng, Tan. 1997. “Indigenous People, the State and Ethnogenesis: A Study of the Communal Associations of the Dayak Communities in Sarawak, Malaysia.” Journal of Southeastern Asian Studies 28 (2): 263-85.

Clelland, Donald A. 2014. “The Core of the Apple: Dark Value and Degrees of Monopoly in Global Commodity Chains.” Journal of World-Systems Research 20 (1),

-----. 2015. “Global Value Transfers and Imperialism.” In The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Imperialism and Anti-Imperialism, ed. Immanuel Ness and Zak Cope. PalgraveMacmillan, 1028-40.

Coates, Rodney. 2002. “Critical Race and Ethnic Studies: Theory, Research and Process.” Critical Sociology 28 (1/2): 7-11.

Corkin, Lucy. 2013. Uncovering African Agency: Angola’s Management of China’s Credit Lines. Ashgate.

da Silva, Denise. 2007. Toward a Global Idea of Race. University of Minnesota Press.

Dedeoglu, Saniye. 2014. “Patriarchy Reconsolidated: Women’s Work in Three Global Commodity Chains of Turkey’s Garment Industry.” In Gendered Commodity Chains: Seeing the Hidden Women’s Work and Laborer Households in Global Production, ed. W. A. Dunaway. Stanford University Press, 105-18.

Delanty, Gerard. 1995. Inventing Europe: Idea, Identity, Reality. St. Martin’s Press.

Deyo, Frederic, ed. 1987. The Political Economy of the New Asian Industrialism. Cornell University Press.

Du Bois, W. E. B. 2015. “The Present Outlook for the Darker Races of Mankind.” In The Problem of the Color Line at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: The Essential Early Essays, ed. Nahum Chandler. Fordham University Press, 2015, 111-38.

Dunaway, Wilma A 2003. “Ethnic Conflict in the Modern World-System: The Dialectics of Counter-Hegemonic Resistance in an Age of Transition.” Journal of World-Systems Research 10 (1): 3-34,

-----. 2012. “The Semiproletarian Household over the Longue Duree of the World-System.” In The Longue Duree of the Modern World-System, ed. Richard Lee. State University of New York Press, 97-136.

-----. 2014. “Through the Portal of the Household: Conceptualizing Women’s Subsidies to Commodity Chains.” In Gendered Commodity Chains: Seeing the Hidden Women’s Work and Laborer Households in Global Production, ed. W. A. Dunaway. Stanford University Press, 55-71.

The Economist. 2008. “The Challengers: A New Breed of Multinational Company Has Emerged.” The Economist (10 January),

-----. 2011. “South-North FDI: Role Reversal.” The Economist. (24 Sept.),

Elkins, Caroline and Susan Pederson. 2005. Settler Colonialism in the 20th Century: Projects, Practices, Legacies. Routledge.

Emirbayer, Mustafa and Matthew Desmond. 2015. The Racial Order. University of Chicago Press.

Evans, Peter. 1979. Dependent Development. Princeton University Press.

Evans, Peter and Michael Timberlake. 1980. “Dependence, Inequality and Growth in Less Developed Countries” American Sociological Review 45: 531-52.

Evans, Peter, D. Rueschemeyer and Theda Skocpol, eds. 1985. Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge University Press.

Falah, Ghazi-Walid. 2005. “The Geopolitics of ‘Enclavisation’ and the Demise of a Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict.” Third World Quarterly 26 (8): 1341-72.

Ferolin, Maria. 2014. “Commodity Chained Fishing Households: Peasant Subsidization of Exports in a Philippine Seafood Extractive Enclave.”In Gendered Commodity Chains: Seeing the Hidden Women’s Work and Laborer Households in Global Production, ed. W. A. Dunaway. Stanford University Press, 156-71.

Fisher, Max. 2013. “A Fascinating Map of the World’s Most and Least Racially Tolerant Countries.” Washington Post (15 May),

Forbes. 2014. “The World’s Biggest Public Companies,”

Forbes. 2015. “The Most Powerful List.”

Forbes. 2016. Forbes. 2016. “The World’s Biggest Public Companies,”

Foxley, Alejandro. 1983. Latin American Experiments in Neo-Conservative Economics. University of California Press.

Friedman, Jonathan. 1997. “Global Crises, the Struggle for Cultural Identity and Intellectual Porkbarreling: Cosmopolitan versus Locals, Ethnics and Nationals in an Era of De-hegemonisation.” In Debating Cultural Hybridity, ed. P. Werbner and T. Modood. Zed Books, 70-89.

Frobel, F., J. Heinrichs and O. Kreye. 1977. The New International Division of Labour. Cambridge University Press.

Gadzala, Aleksandra, ed. 2015. Africa and China: How Africans and Their Governments Are Shaping Relations with China. Rowman and Littlefield.

Gallagher, Kevin and Roberto Porzecanski. 2010. The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization. Stanford University Press.

Garcia, Ana. 2016. “BRICS in Africa: More of the Same? A Comparative Study of Investment Treaties between the BRICS and African Countries.” Institute for Political Alternatives for the Southern Cone, Working Paper, copy emailed by the author.

Geschwender, James and Rhonda Levine. 1994. “Classical and Recent Theoretical Developments in the Marxist Analysis of Race and Ethnicity.” In From the Left Bank to the Mainstream: Historical Debates and Contemporary Research in Marxist Sociology, ed. Patrick McGuire and Donald McQuarie. General Hall, 66-87.

Gobel, Christian and Lynette Ong. 2015. “Social Unrest in China.” Europe China Research and Advice Network,

Goldberg, David. 1994. “Racist Exclusions.” Philosophical Forum 26 (1): 1-32.

Grillo, R. 2007. “An Excess of Alterity? Debating Difference in a Multicultural Society.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 30: 979–998.

Grosfoguel, Ramon. 2006. “World-Systems Analysis in the Context of Transmodernity, Border Thinking and Global Coloniality.” Review 29 (2): 167-88.

-----. 2008. “Transmodernity, Border Thinking and Global Coloniality.” Eurozine (4 July).

-----. 2014. “A Critical View of Wallerstein’s Utopistics from Dussel’s Transmodernity: From Monoepistemic Global/Imperial Designs to Pluri-Epistemic Solutions.” In Global Crises and the Challenges of the 21st Century: Antisystemic Movements and the Transformation of the World-System, ed. Tom Reifer. Paradigm, 118-31.

Gurowitz, Amy. 2000. “Migrant Rights and Activism in Malaysia: Opportunities and Constraints.” Journal of Asian Studies 59 (4): 863-88.

Gurr, Ted R. 1994. “Peoples against States: Ethnopolitical Conflict and the Changing World System.” International Studies Quarterly 38 (3): 347-77.

Hall, Stuart. 1992. “The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power.” In The Formations of Modernity: Understanding Modern Societies, ed. Bram Gieben and Stuart Hall. Polity, 275-95.

Hall, Thomas D. 2001. “World-Systems, Frontiers, and Ethnogenesis: Incorporation and Resistance to State Expansion.” Proto-Sociology 15: 51-85.

Hall, Thomas D. and James Fenelon. 2009. Indigenous Peoples and Globalization: Resistance and Revitalization. Paradigm Publishers.

Harvey, David. 2004. “The ‘New’ Imperialism: Accumulation by Dispossession.” Socialist Register 40: 63-88.

Hatton, Timothy and Jeffrey Williamson. 2008. Global Migration and the World Economy: Two Centuries of Policy and Performance. MIT Press.

He, S. H. 2017. “An Overview of China’s Ethnic Groups and Their Interactions. Sociology Mind 7: 1-10.

Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research. 2016. “Conflict Barometer 2015.”

Holtom, Paul et al. 2013. Trends in International Arms Transfers, 2012. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

Human Rights Watch. 2007. “Angola: ‘They Pushed the House Down’: Forced Evictions and Insecure Land Tenure for Luanda’s Urban Poor,”

Hurun Research Institute. 2015. “Hurun Global Rich List 2015.”

-----. 2016. “Hurun Global Rich List 2016: Press Release.”

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. 2016. Global Report on Internal Displacement,

International Organization for Migration. 2014. World Migration Report 2013.

Jalata, Asafa, ed. 2004. State Crises, Globalisation and National Movements in North-East Africa. Routledge.

Jhappan, Radha. 1996. “Post-Modern Race and Gender Essentialism or a Post-Mortem of Scholarship.” Studies in Political Economy 51: 15-63.

Kadouf, Hunud. 2001. “Marginalization and Resistance: The Plight of the Nuba People.” New Political Science 23 (1): 45-63.

Kara, Siddharth. 2012. Bonded Labor: Tackling the System of Slavery in South Asia. Columbia University Press.

Kentor, Jeffrey. 2008. “The Divergence of Economic and Coercive Power in the World Economy, 1960 to 2000.” Institute for Research on World-Systems, University of California-Riverside, Working Paper # 46,

Kiely, Ray, ed. 2015. The BRICS, US ‘Decline’ and Global Transformations. Palgrave-Macmillan.

Kohler, Gernot. 1978. “Global Apartheid.” Institute for World Order, World Order Models Project, Working Paper 7.

-----. 1995. “The Three Meanings of Global Apartheid: Empirical, Normative, Existential.” Alternatives 20: 403-13.

Korzeniewicz, Roberto and Timothy Moran. 2009. Unveiling Inequality: A World Historical Perspective. Russell Sage Foundation.

Krieger, Tim and Daniel Meierrieks. 2016. “Land Grabbing and Ethnic Conflict.” University of Freiburg, Germany, Working Paper,

Krishna, Anirudh. 2009. “Are More People Becoming Vulnerable to Poverty? Evidence from Grassroots Investigations in Five Countries.” In Globalization and Emerging Societies: Development and Inequality, ed. Jan Pieterse and Rehbein Boike. Palgrave-Macmillan, 66-84.

Krøvel, Roy. 2011. “From ‘Indios’ to ‘Indígenas’: Guerrilla Perspectives on Indigenous Peoples and Repression in Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua.” Interface 3 (1): 145 - 171.

Kuhn, Thomas. 2012. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition. University of Chicago Press.

Kurecic, Petar and Goran Bandov. 2011. “The Contemporary Role and Perspectives of the BRIC States in the World-Order.” Electronic Journal of Political Science Studies 2 (2): 13-32.

Lawson, Stephanie. 1990. “The Myth of Cultural Homogeneity and Its Implications for Chiefly Power and Politics in Fiji.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 32 (4): 795-821.

Lee, Kwanghun. 2009. “Towards a Reformulation of Core/Periphery Relationship: A Critical Reappraisal of the Trimodality of the Capitalist World-economy in the Early 21st Century.” Perspectives on Globalization, Development and Technology 8: 263-94.

Li, M. 2005. “The Rise of China and the Demise of the Capitalist World Economy: Exploring Historical Possibilities in the 21st Century.” Science & Society 69 (3): 430-48.

Lérner, Natán. 2003. Group Rights and Discrimination in International Law. Hague: Kluwer.

Li, Tania. 2010. “Indigeneity, Capitalism and the Management of Dispossession.” Current Anthropology 51 (3): 385-414.

Lo, Vai and Mary Hiscock. 2014. Rise of the BRICS in the Global Political Economy: Changing Paradigms. Edward Elgar.

Lucassen, Leo. 2005. The Immigrant Threat: The Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850. University of Illinois Press.

McAdam, Doug, John McCarthy and Mayer Zald, eds. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures and Cultural Framings. Cambridge University Press.

McMichael, Philip. 1982. “Social Structure of the New International Division of Labor. In Ascent and Decline in the World-System, ed. Edward Friedman. Sage, 115-45.

McNeill, William. 1986. Polyethnicity and National Unity in World History. University of Toronto Press.

Mahutga, Matthew. 2014. “Global Models of Networked Organization, the Positional Power of Nations and Economic Development.” Review of International Political Economy 21 (1): 157-94.

Mahutga, Matthew and David Smith. 2011. “Globalization, the Structure of the World Economy and Economic Development.” Social Science Research 40 (1): 257-72.

Malik, Kenan. 2000. “Universalism and Difference in Discourses of Race.” Review of International Studies 26: 155-77.

Marini, Ruy M. 1972. “Brazilian Subimperialism.” Monthly Review 23 (9): 14-24.

Marshall, Joseph. 1772. Travels through Germany, Russia, and Poland, 1769-1770. Available online at

Martin, William, ed. 1990. Semiperipheral States in the World-Economy. Greenwood Press.

-----. 2008. “South Africa’s Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus, Bandung Consensus or Peoples’ Consensus?” African Sociological Review 12 (1): 122-32.

Mbaye, J. 2011 “New Colonialists: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: BRICS Relevance to the African Creative Economy.” Paper presented at the African Creative Economy Conference,

Memmi, Albert. 1965. The Colonizer and the Colonized. Trans. Howard Greenfield. Beacon Press.

Michel, Serge and Michel Beuret. 2009. China Safari: On the Trail of Beijing’s Expansion in Africa. Nation Books.

Mignolo, Walter. 2011. The Darker Side of Western Modernity: Global Futures, Decolonial Options. Duke University Press.

Migration Policy Institute. 2013. “Top 25 Destination Countries for Global Migrants, 2013.”

Minority Rights Group International. 2016. State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples.

Misoczky, Maria and Takeyoshi Imasato. 2014. “The Brazilian Sub-imperialist Strategy of Regional Insertion.” Critical Perspectives on International Business 10 (4): 274-90.

Mohan, Giles and Ben Lampert. 2013. “Negotiuating China: Reinserting African Agency into China-Africa Relations.” African Affairs 112 (446): 92-110.

Moore, Phoebe and Charles Dannreuther. 2009. “Turkey in the World System and the New Orientalism.” In Globalisation and the ‘New’ SemiPeripheries, ed. Owen Worth and Phoebe Moore. Palgrave-Macmillan, 120-37.

Morison, Stephen et al. 2013. “The Changing Nature of Global Wealth Creation: Shifts and Trends in the Ultra-High Net Worth Community.” Journal of Wealth Management 16 (2): 9-14.

Morning, Ann. 2010. “Ethnic Classification in Global Perspective: A Cross-National Survey of the 2000 Census.” United Nations Population Division Working Paper,

Munoz, Jose. 2006. “International Opportunities and Domestic Protest: Zapatistas, Mexico and the New World Economy.” Social Movement Studies 5 (3): 251–274.

Mushakoji, Kinhide. 2015. “Ethno-Politics in Contemporary Japan: The Mutual-Occlusion of Orientalism and Occidentalism.” Protosociology 32: 36-58.

Nam, Taehyun. 2006. “The Broken Promises of Democracy: Protest-Repression Dynamics in Korea 1990-1991.” Mobilization 11 (4): 427-42.

Nel, Philip and Ian Taylor. 2013. “Bugger Thy Neighbour? IBSA and South-South Solidarity.” Third World Quarterly 34 (6): 1091-1110.

Nettles, Kimberly. 2007. “Becoming Red Thread Women: Alternative Visions of Gendered Politics in Post-independence Guyana.” Social Movement Studies 6 (1): 57–82.

Nolte, Kerstin, Wytske Chamberlain, Markus Giger. 2016. “International Land Deals for Agriculture.” Land Matrix,

Noonan, Rita. 1995. “Women Against the State: Political Opportunities and Collective Action Frames in Chile's Transition to Democracy.” Sociological Forum 10 1): 81–111.

Obi, Cyril. 2010. “Oil Extraction, Dispossession, Resistance and Conflict in Nigeria’s Oil-Rich Niger Delta.” Canadian Journal of Development Studies 30 (1): 219-36.

Olzak, Susan. 1998. “Ethnic Protest in Core and Periphery States.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 21: 187-217.

Olzak, Susan and Kiyoteru Tsutsui. 1998. “Status in the World System and Ethnic Mobilization.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 42 (6): 691-720.

Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. 2013. Racial Formation in the United States. Routledge.

Onuki, Hironi. 2015. “A Dilemma in Modern Japan? Migrant Workers and the (Self) Illusion of Homogeneity.” Protosociology 32: 59-82.

Oxfam. 2016. “An Economy for the 1%.” Briefing Paper,

Palat, Ravi. 2009. “Rise of the Global South and the Emerging Contours of a New World Order.” In Globalization and Emerging Societies: Development and Inequality, ed. Van N. Pieterse and Boike Rehbein. PalgraveMacmillan, 39-60.

Patnaik, Prabhat. 2005. “The Economics of the New Phase of Imperialism.”

Pearce, Fred. 2012. The Land Grabbers: The New Fight over Who Owns the Earth. Beacon Press.

Peschard, Karine. 2005. “Rethinking the Semi-Periphery: Some Conceptual Issues,” Working Paper, The Globalism Project, University of Alberta, copy emailed from the author.

Pieterse, Van N. 2009. “Twenty-First Century Globalization: Global Sociology.” In Globalization and Emerging Societies: Development and Inequality, ed. Van N. Pieterse and Boike Rehbein. PalgraveMacmillan, 15-38.

Pijl, Kees van der. 2012. The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class. Verso.

Radice, Hugo. 2009. “Halfway to Paradise? Making Sense of the Semi-Periphery.” In Globalisation and the ‘New’ SemiPeripheries, ed. Owen Worth and Phoebe Moore. Palgrave-Macmillan, 25-39.

Richardson, William. 1784. Anecdotes of the Russian Empire in a Series of Letters Written from St. Petersburg. Available online at

Richmond, Anthony. 1955. The Colour Problem: A Study of Race Relations. Penguin Books.

Robinson, William. 2003. Transnational Conflicts: Central America, Social Change and Globalization. Verso.

-----. 2004. A Theory of Global Capitalism: Production, Class, and State in a Transnational World. Johns Hopkins University Press.

-----. 2014. Global Capitalism and the Crisis of Humanity. Cambridge University Press.

Roman, Meredith. 2002. “Making Caucasians Black: Moscow since the Fall of Communism and the Racialization of Non-Russians.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 18 (2): 1-27.

Said, Edward. 1994. Culture and Imperialism. Vintage Books

Scott, Erik. 2016. Familiar Strangers: The Georgian Diaspora and the Evolution of the Soviet Empire. Oxford University Press.

Sharma, Nandita. 2007. “Global Apartheid and Nation-Statehood: Instituting Border Regimes.” In Nationalism and Globalism, ed. James Goodman and Paul James. Routledge, 71-90.

Shaw, Timothy. 1979. “The Semiperiphery in African and Latin America: Subimperialism and Semi-industrialism.” Review of Black Political Economy 9 (4): 341-58.

Sklair, Leslie. 2000. The Transnational Capitalist Class. Wiley-Blackwell.

Smith, David and József Böröcz, eds. 1995. A New World Order? Global Transformations in the Late Twentieth Century. Praeger Press.

Sousa-Santos, Boaventura de. 2014. Epistemologies of the South: Justice against Epistemicide. Paradigm.

Spivak, Gayatri C. 1988. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, ed. Cary Nelson and Larry Grossberg. University of Illinois Press, 271-313.

Stanley, Jason. 2002. “Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement.” Forced migration Organization,

Strange, Gerard. 2015. “Globalisation, Accumulation by Dispossession and the Rise of the Semi-Periphery: Towards a Global Post-Fordism and Crisis?” In Globalisation and the ‘New’ SemiPeripheries, ed. Owen Worth and Phoebe Moore. Palgrave-Macmillan, 40-57.

Struenkel, Oliver. 2015. The BRICS and the Future of Global Order. Lexington Books.

Sturgeon, Janet et al. 2006. “Enclosing Ethnic Minorities and Forests in the Golden Economic Quadrangle.” Development and Change 44 (1): 53-79.

Svoksy, David and John Cuffe. 2015. “Lost Autonomy, Nationalism and Separatism.” Comparative Political Studies 48 (1): 3-34.

Terlouw, Kees. 2002. “The Semiperipheral Space in the World-System.” Review 25 (1): 1-22.

Terminski, Bogumil. 2015. Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Causes, Consequences and Socio-Legal Contexts. Ibidem Press.

Therien, Jean-Philippe. 2010. "Beyond the North-South Divide: The Two Tales of World Poverty." Third World Quarterly. 20 (4): 723–742.

Timberlake, Michael and Kirk Williams. 1984. “Dependence, Political Exclusion, and Government Repression: Some Cross-National Evidence.” American Sociological Review 49: 141-46.

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. 2003. Global Transformations: Anthropology and the Modern World. Palgrave Macmillan.

UNHCR. 2012. “People Internally Displaced by Conflict and Violence,” =1.23287802.113984296.1476147170

-----. 2013. “Displacement the New 21st Century Challenge,”

-----. 2015. Global Trends Forced Displacement 2014.

United Nations. 2003. "Ethnicity: A Review of Data Collection and

Dissemination." Working Paper, United Nations Demographic and Social Statistics Branch,

-----. 2015. World Population Prospects.

-----. 2016. International Migration Report.

Vera, Hernan and Joe Feagin. 2007. Handbook of the Sociology of Racial and Ethnic Relations. Springer.

Walker, Beth. 2013. “State of the World’s Minorities and Indigenous Peoples, 2012.” Minority Rights Group International,

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1972. “Social Conflict in Post-Independence Black Africa: The Concepts of Race and Status Group Reconsidered.” In Racial Tensions and National Identity, ed. Ernest Campbell. Vanderbilt University Press, 206-26.

-----. 1974a. The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Academic Press.

-----. 1974b. “The Rise and Future Demise of the World Capitalist System: Concepts for Comparative Analysis.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 16 (4): 387-415.

-----. 1976. “Semi-Peripheral Countries and the Contemporary World Crisis.” Theory and Society 3 (4): 461-83.

-----. 1979. The Capitalist World-Economy. Polity Press.

-----. 1980a. The Politics of the World-Economy. Cambridge University Press.

-----. 1980b. The Modern World-System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600-1750. Academic Press.

-----. 1983. “The Three Instances of Hegemony in the History of the Capitalist World-Economy.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 24 (1/2): 100-108.

-----. 1989. The Modern World-System III: The Second Era of Great Expansion of the Capitalist World-Economy, 1730-1840s. Academic Press.

-----. 1990. “The Place of the Semiperiphery in the Modern World-System.” In Semiperipheral States in the World-Economy, ed. William Martin. Greenwood Press.

-----. 1991. Unthinking Social Science: The Limits of Nineteenth Century Paradigms. Polity Press.

-----. 2000. The Essential Wallerstein. New Press.

-----. 2003a. Historical Capitalism with Capitalist Civilization. Verso.

-----. 2003b. “U.S. Weakness and the Struggle for Hegemony.” Monthly Review 55 (3).

-----. 2004a. Alternatives: The United States Confronts the World. Paradigm.

-----. 2004b. The Uncertainties of Knowledge. Temple University Press.

-----. 2011. The Modern World-System IV: Centrist Liberalism Triumphant, 1789-1914. University of California Press.

-----. 2015. “Whose Interests Are Served by the BRICS?” In BRICS: An Anti-Capitalist Critique, ed. Patrick Bond and Ana Garcia. Haymarket Books, 269-73.

Wimmer, Andreas. 2013. Ethnic Boundary Making: Institutions, Power, Networks. Oxford University Press.

-----. 2015. “Race-centrism: A Critique and Research Agenda.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 38 (13): 2186-2205.

Winant, Howard. 1997. “Racial Dualism at Century’s End.” In The House that Race Built: Black Americans, US Terrain, ed. Wahneema Lubiano. Pantheon.

-----. 2001. The World Is a Ghetto: Race and Democracy Since World War II. Basic Books.

Wolff, Larry. 1994. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford University Press.

World Bank. 1981. World Development Report 1980.

World Economic Forum. 2016. The Global Risks Report.

Worth, Owen and Phoebe Moore, eds. 2009. Globalisation and the ‘New’ SemiPeripheries. London: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Xie, Yu and Xiang Zhou. 2014. “Income Inequality in Today’s China.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 111(19): 6928–6933,

Yates, Douglas. 2012. The Scramble for African Oil: Oppression, Corruption and War for Control of Africa’s Natural Resources. Pluto.

Yavuz, M. Haman. 2001. “Five Stages of the Construction of Kurdish Nationalism in Turkey.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 7 (3): 1-24.

Yeates, Nicola. 2013. “Global Care Chains: Bringing in Transnational Reproductive Laborer Households.” In Gendered Commodity Chains: Seeing Women’s Work and Households in 21st Century Global Production, ed. Wilma A. Dunaway. Stanford University Press, 175-89.




How to Cite

Dunaway, W. A., & Clelland, D. A. (2017). Moving toward Theory for the 21st Century: The Centrality of Nonwestern Semiperipheries to World Ethnic/Racial Inequality. Journal of World-Systems Research, 23(2), 399–464.



Dialogue: Race in the Capitalist World-System