Austerity and Anti-Systemic Protest: Bringing Hardships Back In
This article explores the relationship between hardships and protest in the world-system. Despite the history of discussion of anti-systemic protest, there has been little work that differentiates world-systems contributions to social movement research from others who examine social movements. We contribute to a theory of anti-systemic protest by re-introducing hardships as a crucial element that defines inequalities in the world-system; one consistent source of those hardships are austerity policies imposed in response to debt negotiations. In addition to our path analyses which demonstrate the clear link of hardships and protest, our case studies provide further historical analysis on when globalization, political openings, and long-term hardships also help explain the occasion of protest.
Almeida, Paul. 2008. “The Sequencing of Success: Organizing Templates and Neoliberal Policy Outcomes”. Mobilization 13 (2): 165-187.
Amin, Samir, Giovanni Arrighi, Andre Gunder Frank, and Immanuel Wallerstein, editors. 1990. Transforming the Revolution: Social Movements and the World-System. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Aminzade, Ronald R., Jack A. Goldstone, Doug McAdam, Elizabeth J. Perry, William H. Sewell Jr., Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly. 2001. Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Arrighi, Giovanni. 1994. The Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power, and the Origins of Our Times. New York: Verso.
Arrighi, Giovanni, Terence K. Hopkins, and Immanuel Wallerstein. 1989. Antisystemic Movements. New York: Verso.
Arrighi, Giovanni and Lu Zhang. 2011. “Beyond the Washington Consensus: A New Bandung?” pp. 25-57, in Globalization and Beyond: New Examinations of Global Power and Its Alternatives. Edited by Jon Shefner and Patricia Fernández-Kelly. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Auvinen, J. Y. 1996. “IMF Intervention and Political Protest in the Third World: A conventional wisdom refined.” Third World Quarterly, 17(3): 377-400.
Auyero, Javier. 2003. "Relational Riot: Austerity and Corruption Protest in the Neoliberal Era." Social Movement Studies 2:117-145.
______. 2006. "The Political Makings of the 2001 Lootings in Argentina." Journal of Latin American Studies 38:241-266.
______. 2007. Routine Violence and Politics in Argentina: The Gray Zone of State Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Auyero, Javier and Timothy Patrick Moran. 2007. "The Dynamics of Collective Violence: Dissecting Food Riots in Contemporary Argentina." Social Forces 85:1341-1367.
Babb, Sarah. 2005. "The Social Consequences of Structural Adjustment: Recent Evidence and Current Debates." Annual Review of Sociology 31:199-222.
Babones, Salvatore J. 2005. “The Country-Level Income Structure of the World-Economy.” Journal of World-Systems Research. 11: 29-55.
Baer, Delal. 1990. "Electoral Trends". In Grayson, ed. Prospects for Democracy in Mexico. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Barham, John. 1990. “Menem Curbs Right to Strike in Vital Services.” Financial Times. October 19, 1990. Section 1; American News; p. 5.
BBC. 1990a. “Honduras; New Economic Measures Denounced by Unions.” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. March 20, 1990. Section 4(D).
______. 1990b. “Honduras President Takes Action over Strike by Banana Workers.” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. August 6, 1990. Section 4(D).
______. 1990c. “Honduras President Announces End of 42-Day Banana Workers’ Strike.” BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. August 7, 1990. Section 4(D).
Burnham, Kenneth P. and David R. Anderson. 2002. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, 2nd Edition. New York: Springer-Verlag.
______. 2004. “Multi-Model Inference: Understanding AIC and BIC in Model Selection.” Sociological Methods and Research. 33: 261-304.
Carr, Barry. 1986. "The Mexican Left, the Popular Movements, and the Politics of Austerity, 1982-1985", in The Mexican Left, the Popular Movements, and the Politics of Austerity, ed. by B. Carr and R.A. Montoya. Monograph Series, 18. San Diego: Center for U.S.- Mexican Studies, University of California.
Cliff, Norman. 1983. “”Some Cautions Concerning the Application of Causal Modeling Methods.” Multivariate Behavioral Research. 18: 115-126.
Cohen, Jean. 1985. “Strategy or Identity: New Theoretical Paradigms and Contemporary Social Movements.” Social Research 52:663-716.
Coone, Tim. 1990. “Troops End Honduran Banana Worker Strike.” Financial Times. August 7, 1990. Section 1, American News, p. 4.
Cordera Campos, Rolando, and Enrique González Tiburcio. 1991. "Crisis and Transition in the Mexican Economy". In M. González de la Rocha and A. Escobar Latapí, eds. Social Responses to Mexico's Economic Crisis of the 1980s. San Diego: Center for U.S. -Mexican Studies.
Cypher, James M. and Raúl Delgado Wise. 2010. “Restructuring Mexico, Realigning Dependency: Harnessing Mexican Labor Power in the NAFTA Era.” pp. 90-120, in Globalization and Beyond: New Examinations of Global Power and Its Alternatives. Edited by Jon Shefner and Patricia Fernández-Kelly. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Davies, James C. 1969. “The J-Curve of Rising and Declining Satisfactions as a Cause of some Great Revolutions and a Contained Rebellion.” in Violence in America: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, edited by Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr. New York: Bantam.
Dixon, M and A W Martin, “We Can’t Win This on Our Own: Unions, Firms, and the Mobilization of External Allies in Labor Disputes.” American Sociological Review 77 (2012): 946-969.
Economist, The. 1994. “Discovering Poverty in Argentina.” The Economist Newspaper Limited. February 12.
Economist Intelligence Unit. 1996. Country Profile: Argentina. New York.
Efron, Bradley and Robert Tibshirani. 1997. “Improvements on Cross-Validation: The .632+ Boot-Strap Method.” Journal of the American Statistical Association. 92: 548-560.
Evrensel, Ayse. 2002. “Effectiveness of IMF-Supported Stabilization Programs in Developing Countries.” Journal of International Money and Finance 21 (5): 565-587.
Escobar Latapí, Agustín, and Bryan R. Roberts. 1991. “Urban Stratification, the Middle Classes, and Economic Change in Mexico”. In Social Responses to Mexico’s Economic Crisis of the 1980s, ed. by Mercedes González de la Rocha and Agustín Escobar Latapí. San Diego: Center for U.S. - Mexican Studies.
Fanelli, José María and Roberto Frenkel. 1999. “The Argentine Experience with Stabilization and Structural Reform.” Pp. 53-80, in After Neoliberalism: What Next for Latin Amercia? Edited by Lance Taylor. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Financial Post, The. 1990. “Banana Strike Ends.” August 7, 1990. Section 1, News p. 8.
Ford, Peter. 1990. “Pact with Opposition Still Eludes Menem.” The Independent. February 26, 1990. Foreign News Page; p. 11.
Foweraker, Joe. 1989. 'Popular Movements.' In Mexico's Alternative Futures, edited by Wayne A. Cornelius, Judith Gentleman, and Peter H. Smith. Sand Diego: Center for U.S.-Mexico Studies.
Fox, John. 1980. “Effect Analysis in Structural Equation Models: Extensions on Simplified Methods of Computation.” Sociological Methods and Research. 9: 3-28.
Gamson, William. 1992. Talking Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gamson, William and David Meyer. “Framing political opportunity.” In Doug McAdam, John McCarthy, and Mayer Zald (eds.) Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements. London: Cambridge University Press.
Gentleman, Judith, ed. 1987. Mexican Politics in Transition. Boulder: Westview Press.
Goddard, Victoria. 2006. “‘This is History’: Nation and Experience in Times of Crisis – Argentina 2001.” History and Anthropology 17:267-286.
Granger, C. W. J. 1969. “Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods.” Econometrica. 37: 424-438.
Granger, C. W. J. and P. Newbold. 1974. “Spurious Regressions in Econometrics.” Journal of Econometrics. 2: 111-120.
Grayson, George, ed. 1990. Prospects for Democracy in Mexico. New Brusnwick: Transaction Publishers.
Grosfuguel, Ramón and Ana Margarita Cervantes-Rodriguez, editors. 2002. The Modern/Colonial/Capitalist World-System in the Twentieth Century: Global Processes, Antisystemic Movements, and the Geopolitics of Knowledge. New York: Praeger.
Grugel, Jean and Maria Pia Riggirozzi. 2007. "The Return of the State in Argentina." International Affairs 83:87-107.
Guillén Lopez, Tonatiuh. 2001. “Democratic Transition in Baja California: Stages and Actors”. In Party Politics and the Struggle for Democracy in Mexico: Natinoal and State-Level Analyses of the Partido Acción Nacional, edited by Kevin Middlebrook. La Jolla: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies.
Gumpertz, Marcia and Sastry G. Pantula. 1989. “A Simple Approach to Inference in Random Coefficient Models.” The American Statistician. 43: 203-210.
Gurr, Ted Robert. 1970. Why Men Rebel. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Hall, Thomas D. and James V. Fenelon 2003. “Indigenous Resistance to Globalization: What Does the Future Hold?” Pp. 173–188 in Emerging Issues in the 21st Century World-System: Vol. I: Crises and Resistance in the 21st World-System, edited by Wilma A. Dunaway. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Harvey, David. 2005. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press.
Hetland, Gabriel and Jeff Goodwin. 2013. “The Strange Disappearance of Capitalism from Social Movement Studies”. In Marxism and Social Movements, edited by Colina Barker, Laurence Cox, John Krinsky, and Alf Gunvald Nilsen. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
Hox, Joop J. 2010. Multilevel Analysis: Techniques and Applications, 2nd Edition. New York: Routledge.
Independent, The. 1990. “Strike Ends.” August 7, 1990. Foreign News, p. 10.
Jarvie, Richard. 1990. “Argentina to Announce New Austerity Measures.” Reuters News. August 31.
Jenkins, J. Craig and Charles Perrow. 1977. “Insurgency of the powerless: Farm worker movements (1946-1972)”. American Sociological Review 42(2):249-68.
Jolliffe, L.T. 1990. Principal Component Analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1986. “Political Opportunity Structures and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies”. British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 57-85.
Kohavi, Ron. 1995. “A Study of Cross-Validation and Bootstrap for Accuracy Estimation and Model Selection.” Pp. 1137-1143, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 2. Morgan Kaufman.
Kornhauser, William. 1959. The Politics of Mass Society. New York: Free Press.
Lara, José Bell and Delia Luisa López. 2007. “The Harvest of Neoliberalism in Latin Amerioca.” In Imperialism, Neoliberalism and Social Struggles in Latin America, edited by Richard A. Dello Buono and José Bell Lara. Boston: Brill.
Levitsky, Steven. 2005. “Argentina: Democratic Survival amidst Economic Failure.” Pp. 63-89 in The Third Wave of Democratization in Latin America: Advances and Setbacks, edited by Frances Hagopian and Scott P. Mainwaring, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Llanos, Maiana and Ana Margheritis. 2006. “Why Do Presidents Fail? Political Leadership and the Argentine Crisis, 1999-2001.” Studies in Comparative International Development. 40(4): 77-103.
Lora, Eduardo. 2001. “Structural Reforms in Latin America: What Has Been Reformed and How to Measure it.” Working Paper #466 New York: Inter-American Development Bank.
Lustig, Nora. 1990. "Economic Crisis, Adjustment and Living Standards in Mexico, 1982-85". World Development 18,10:1325-1342. Brookings Institution.
McAdam, Doug, Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly. 1996. “To map contentious politics.” Mobilization 1:17-34.
______. 1997. “Toward an integrated perspective on social movements and revolutions.” in Mark Lichbach and Alan Zuckerman (eds.) Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure. NY: Cambridge University Press.
______. 2001. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McAdam, Doug, John D. McCarthy, and Mayer Zald. 1996. “Introduction: Opportunities, mobilizing structures, and framing processes – Toward a synthetic, comparative perspective on social movements.” in D. McAdam, J. McCarthy, and M. Zald (eds.) Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John and Meyer Zald. 1973. The Trend of Social Movements in America: Professionalization and Resource Mobilization. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
McCarthy, John and Meyer Zald. 1977. “Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 82 (6): 1212-41.
McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change, 3rd edition. Pine Forge Press.
McVeigh, Rory. 2009. The Rise of the Ku Klux Klan: Right-Wing Movements and National Politics. University of Minnesota Press.
Mead, Gary. 1990. “Argentine Fiscal Axe Turns out to Be a Butter Knife.” Financial Times. March 7, 1990. Section 1; American News; p. 6.
Melucci, Alberto. 1985. “The Symbolic Challenge of Contemporary Movements.” Social Research 52: 789-815.
______. 1989. Nomads of the Present. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Miami Herald. 1995. “Tocoa.” April 5, 1995. International Business Abstracts Section A, p. 10, Column 1.
Morley, Samuel A., Roberto Machado, and Stefano Pettinato. 1999. “Indexes of Structural Reform in Latin America.” Serie Reformas Económicas 12. Santiago, Chile: ECLAC.
Nepstad, Sharon. 1997. “The Process of Cognitive Liberation: Cultural Synapses, Links, and Frame Contradictions in the U.S.-Central America Peace Movement”. Sociological Inquiry 67(4): 470-90.
O’Donnell, Santiago. 1991. “The Longest-Running Soap Opera in the Americas.” The Los Angeles Times Sunday Home Edition. August 18, p. 24.
Pasdirtz, George W. 2012a. “Latin America Hardship Analysis: Supporting On-Line Material, Index Construction Methodology.” SOM https://mywebspace.wisc.edu/pasdirtz/web/global/LA/HardshipMethods.pdf, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin – Madison.
______. 2012b. “Latin America Hardship Analysis: Supporting On-Line Material, Time Series Models.” SOM https://mywebspace.wisc.edu/pasdirtz/web/global/LA/HardshipModels.R.pdf, Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin – Madison.
Patroni, Viviana. 2002. "Structural Reforms and the Labour Movement in Argentina." Labour, Capital & Society 35: 252-280.
Pearl, Judea. 2000. Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pedhazur, Elazar J. and Fred Nichols Kerlinger. 1982. Multiple Regression in Behavioral Research: Explanation and Prediction. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.
Pettigrew, Thomas F. 1971. Racially Separate or Together? New York. McGraw-Hill.
Piven, Frances Fox, and Richard Cloward. 1979. Poor People's Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail. New York: Vintage Books.
Portes, Alejandro and Kelly Hoffman (2003) “Latin American Class Structures: Their Composition and Change During the Neoliberal Era.” Latin American Research Review 38: 41-82.
Pozzi, Pablo. 2000. "Popular Upheaval and Capitalist Transformation in Argentina." Latin American Perspectives 27:63-87.
Ramìrez Saiz, Juan Manuel. 1992. 'Dos proyectos antagonicos de movilizacíon? La Coordinadora Nacional del Movimiento Urbano Popular (CONAMUP) y la Convencíon Nacional Urbano Popular (CNUP). Sociedad y Estado Numero 4 y 5.
Reifer, Thomas Ehrlich, editor. 2004. Globalization, Hegemony and Power: Antisystemic Moveents and the Global System. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Reuters. 1990a. “Argentina Announces Public Service Rate Rise.” Reuters News. February 1.
______. 1990b. “Argentina Forces 80,000 Civil Servants to Retire.” Reuters News. April 16.
Rowland, Aaron T. 2013. How Left a Turn? Legacies of the Neoliberal State in Latin America (Doctoral Dissertation). http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/2475/, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
SAPRIN. 2004. Structural Adjustment: The SAPRI Report – The Policy Roots of Economic Crisis, Poverty and Inequality. New York: Zed Books.
Schwarzer, Jorge. 1998. “Economic Reform in Argentina: Which Social Forces for What Aims?” pp. 61-88 in What Kind of Democracy? What Kind of Market? Edited by Philip D. Oxhorn and Graciela Ducatenzeiler. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
Shefner, Jon. 2012. “Global Civil Society or Global Politics?” pp. 499-507, in Routledge Handbook of World-Systems Analysis. Edited by Salvatore J. Babones and Christopher Chase-Dunn. New York: Routledge.
Shefner, Jon. 2008. The Illusion of Civil Society: Democratization and Community Mobilization in Low Income Mexico. Penn State University Press.
Shefner, Jon, George Pasdirtz, and Cory Blad. 2006. "Austerity Protests and Social Immiseration: Evidence from Mexico and Argentina.” In Latin American Social Movements. Hank Johnston and Paul Almeida (eds). Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Shefner, Jon and Julie Stewart. 2011. “Neoliberalism, Grievances and Democratization: An Exploration of the Role of Material Hardships in Shaping Mexico’s Democratic Transition.” Journal of World-Systems Research 17: 353-378.
Silver, Beverly. 2003. Forces of Labor: Workers’ Movements and Globalization Since 1870. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Smelser, Neil J. 1962. Theory of Collective Behavior. New York: Free Press.
Smith, Jackie and Dawn Wiest. 2012. Social Movements in the World-System: The Politics of Crisis and Transformation. New York: The Russell Sage Foundation.
Snee, Ronald D. 1977. “Validation of Regression Models: Methods and Examples.” Technometrics. 19: 415-428.
Snow, David A. and Robert D. Benford. 1988. “Ideology, Frame Resonance, and Participant Mobilization.” B. Klandermans, H. Kriesi, and S. Tarrow, eds. From Structure to Action: Social Movement Participation Across Cultures. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press.
______. 1992. “Master Frames and Cycles of Protest”. In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, ed. by Aldon Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Snow, David A., E. Burke Rochford, Jr., Steven K. Worden, and Robert D. Benford. 1986. “Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Particpation.” American Sociological Review. 51:464-81.
Soederberg, Susanne. 2004. The Politics of the New International Financial Architecture: Reimposing Neoliberal Domination in the Global South. London: Zed Books.
Starr, Pamela K. 1997. “Government Coalitions and the Viability of Current Boards: Argentina under the Cavallo Plan.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 39(2): 83-133.
Stiglitz, Joseph. (2003) Globalization and its Discontents. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
_______. 2006. Making Globalization Work. London: Allen Lane.
Maria Tarres, “Crisis and Political OppositionI among the Mexican Middle Classes,”, International Sociology 2 No. 2 (1987): 131-150; Heather Williams, Planting Trouble: The Barzon Debtor’s Movement in Mexico (San Diego: Center for U.S. -Mexican Studies, 1996).
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
_______. 1996a. “States and opportunities.” in D. McAdam, J. McCarthy, and M. Zald (eds.) Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
_______. 1996b. “Social movements in contentious politics: A review article.” American Political Science Review 90:874-83.
_______. 1998. “‘The Very Excess of Democracy’: State Building and Contentious Politics in America.” In Social Movements and American Political Institutions, edited by Anne Costain and Andrew McFarland. Boulder, CO: Rowan and Littlefield.
Tilly, Charles. 1969. “Collective Violence in European Perspective.” in The History of Violence in America, edited by Hugh Davis Graham and Ted Robert Gurr. New York: Bantam.
_______. 1970. “The Changing Place of Collective Violence.” in Essays in Social and Political History, edited by Melvin Richter. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
_______. 1973. “Does Modernization Breed Revolution?” Comparative Politics. 5:425-447.
_______. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
_______. 1986. The Contentious French. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
_______. 1995. Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758-1834. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Toronto Star, The. 1990. “Supermarket Bombed to Protest Food Prices.” December 24, 1990. P. D8
Touraine, Alain. 1985. Movimientos Sociales y Pautas de Acción Collectiva en America Latina. Santiago: OIT.i
Useem, Michael. 1975. Protest Movements in America. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.
Van Dyke, Nella, and Sarah A. Soule. "Structural social change and the mobilizing effect of threat: Explaining levels of patriot and militia organizing in the United States." Social Problems 49.4 (2002): 497-520.
Villalón, Roberta. 2007. "Neoliberalism, Corruption, and Legacies of Contention: Argentina's Social Movements, 1993-2006." Latin American Perspectives 34:139-156.
Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World-System, vol. I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.
______. 1984. The Politics of the World-Economy. The States, the Movements and the Civilizations. New York: Cambridge University Press.
______. 1990. “AntiSystemic Movements: History and Dilemmas.” Pp. 13-53, in Transforming the Revolution: Social Movements and the World-System. Edited by Samir Amin, Giovanni Arrighi, Andre Gunder Frank, and Immanuel Wallerstein. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Walton, John, and Charles Ragin. 1990. “Global and National Sources of Political Protest: Third World Responses to the Debt Crisis.” American Sociological Review 55:876–890.
Walton, John and Seddon, David. 1994. Free Markets and Food Riots: The Politics of Global Adjustment. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Williams, Heather. 2001. Social Movements and Economic Transition: Markets and Distributive Conflict in Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Copyright (c) 2015 Jon Shefner
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.