Every Day I Write the Book

Geoculture as Dominant Ideology in the Twenty-First Century





Geoculture, Dominant Ideology, Market Society, Clash of Civilizations


The article examines the concept of geoculture understood as a form of dominant ideology in the twenty-first century. It situates this in the context of the attempt by conservative and liberal elites in the core states to frame a coherent understanding of the post-Cold War world with which to guide, justify, and legitimize policies and actions. The dominant geoculture has come to be framed by two contrasting grand narratives which establish a framework for legitimate intra-elite debate and understanding of the post-Cold War era: Neoliberalism and the Clash of Civilizations. The significance of these two intra-elite grand narratives is that they represent a break with what Wallerstein has called “centrist liberalism,” which has tended to dominate the geoculture of the modern world-system.

Author Biography

Peter Wilkin, Brunel University

Peter Wilkin is a Reader in the department of social and political science at Brunel University, UK. His research has focussed upon a range of issues including: the relationship between popular and political culture; security and development; the political economy of communication; and challenges to Centrist Liberalism from a reconstituted political left and right. He is currently finishing projects on the Gilets Jaunes, Brexit, and the place of Anarchism in the modern world-system.


Abercrombie, Nicholas, and Bryan S. Turner. 1978. “The Dominant Ideology Thesis.” British Journal of Sociology, 29(2): 149–170. https://www.jstor.org/stable/589886

Adolph, Christopher. 2013. Bankers, Bureaucrats, and Central Bank Politics: The Myth of Neutrality. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ahmad, Eqbal. 1981. “The Neo-Fascist State: Notes on the Pathology Of Power in the Third World.” Arab Studies Quarterly, 3(2): 170–180. https://www.jstor.org/stable/41854902

Amin-Khan, Tariq, 2012. “New Orientalism, Securitisation and the Western Media's Incendiary Racism.” Third World Quarterly, 33(9): 1595–1610. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2012.720831

Anderson, Perry. 2015. American Foreign Policy and its Thinkers. London, UK: Verso Books.

Archer, Margaret S. 1998. “The Dubious Guarantees of Social Science: A Reply to Wallerstein.” International Sociology, 13(1): 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1177/026858098013001001

Bazian, Hatem. 2018. “Islamophobia, “Clash of civilizations”, and forging a post-Cold War order!”. Religions, 9(9): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9090282

Bello, Walden F. 2019. Counterrevolution: The Global Rise of the Far Right. Nova Scotia, Canada: Fernwood Publishing.

Berry, Christopher J. 1986. Human Nature. London, UK: Humanities Press.

Best, Heinrich, and John Higley. 2010. Democratic Elitism: New Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers.

Blyth, Mark. 2013. Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Borrell, Joseph. 2022. “A Stronger Europe in the World.” Speech to the European Diplomatic Academy, October 13. https://www.eeas.europa.eu/eeas/european-diplomatic-academy-opening-remarks-high-representative-josep-borrell-inauguration_en

Bosco, David. 2013. Rough Justice: The International Criminal Court in a World of Power Politics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Callinicos, Alex. 1999. Social Theory: A Historical Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Carr, Robert. 2002. “Geopolitics/Geoculture: Denationalization in the New World Order”. Pp. 270–314 in Black Nationalism in the New World: Reading the African-American and West Indian Experience, written by Robert Carr. Durham, NC: Duke University Press..

Chang, Ha-Joon. 2008. Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism. London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Charron, N. 2010. “Deja Vu All Over Again: A Post-Cold War Empirical Analysis of Samuel Huntington’s ‘Clash of Civilizations’ Theory” Cooperation and Conflict, 45(1): 107–127.

Chirot, Daniel. 2020. You Say You Want a Revolution?: Radical Idealism and its Tragic Consequences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Chomsky, Noam, and Edward S. Herman. 1979. The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism. Boston, MA: South End Press.

Cloud, Dana L. 2004. “‘To Veil the Threat of Terror’: Afghan Women and the Clash of Civilizations in the Imagery of the US War on Terrorism.” Quarterly Journal of Speech, 90(3): 285–306. https://doi.org/10.1080/0033563042000270726

Connolly, William. 1987. Politics and Ambiguity. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Crouch, Colin. 2013. Making Capitalism Fit for Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Crozier, Michel J., Samuel P. Huntington, and Joji Watanuki. 1975. The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission. New York: New York University Press.

Dahl, Goran. 1999. Radical Conservatism and the Future of Politics: Radical Conservatism and the Future of Politics. London, UK: Sage.

Demmers, Jolle, Alex E. Fernández Jilberto, and Barbara Hogenboom. 2004. Good Governance in the Era of Global Neoliberalism: Conflict and Depolitization in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. London, UK: Routledge.

Dorling, Danny. 2015. Injustice: Why Social Inequality Still Persists. London, UK: Policy Press.

Doyal, Len, and Ian Gough. 1991. A Theory of Human Need. London, UK: Palgrave.

Eagleton, Terry. 2007. Ideology: An Introduction. London, UK: Verso Books.

Ekman, Mattias. 2022. “The Great Replacement: Strategic Mainstreaming of Far-Right Conspiracy Claims.” Convergence, 28(4): 1127–1143. https://doi.org/10.1177/13548565221091983

el-Ojeili, Chamsy. 2015. “Reflections on Wallerstein: The Modern World-System, Four Decades On.” Critical Sociology, 41(4-5): 679–700. https://doi.org/10.1177/0896920513497377

Erixon, Lennart. 2010. “The Rehn-Meidner Model in Sweden: Its Rise, Challenges And Survival.” Journal of Economic Issues, 44(3): 677–715. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20778709

Fay, Brian. 1987. Critical Social Science: Liberation and its Limits. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Forchtner, Bernhard., ed. 2019. The Far Right and the Environment: Politics, Discourse and Communication. London, UK: Routledge.

Fraser, Nancy. 2016. “Progressive Neoliberalism Versus Reactionary Populism: A Choice that Feminists Should Refuse.” NORA-Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 24(4): 281–284. https://doi.org/10.1080/08038740.2016.1278263

Fukuyama, Francis. 2006. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Simon and Schuster.

______. 2017. The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. New York: Profile Books.

Gelis-Filho, Antonio. 2019. “Geoculture: Missing in Action”. Pp. 167–184 in Evolution: Evolutionary Trends, Aspects, and Patterns, edited by Leonid Grinin and Andrey Korotayev. Volgograd, Russia: Uchitel Publishing House.

Giroux, Henry. 2015. Against the Terror of Neoliberalism: Politics Beyond the Age of Greed. London, UK: Routledge.

Gordon, C. ed., 2021. Approaches to Discourse Analysis. Washington D. C.: Georgetown University Press.

Grinin, Leonid, and Andrey Korotayev, eds. 2019. Evolution: Evolutionary Trends, Aspects, and Patterns. Volgograd, Russia: Uchitel Publishing House.

Grosfoguel, Ramón. 2002. “Colonial Difference, Geopolitics of Knowledge, and Global Coloniality in the Modern/Colonial Capitalist World-System.” Utopian Thinking, 25(3): 203–224. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40241548

Hammersley, Martyn. 2020. Troubling Sociological Concepts: An Interrogation. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hannerz, Ulf. 2009. “Geocultural Scenarios.” Pp. 267–288 in Frontiers of Sociology, edited by Peter Hedström and Björn Wittrock. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers.

Häring, Norbert, and Niall Douglas. 2012. Economists and the Powerful: Convenient Theories, Distorted Facts, Ample Rewards. London, UK: Anthem Press.

Hayek, Friedrich. 1976. The Road to Serfdom. London, UK: Routledge.

______. 2013. The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism. London, UK: Routledge.

Haynes, Jeffrey. 2020. “Right-Wing Populism and Religion in Europe and the USA”. Religions, 11(10): 1–18. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11100490

Hazony, Yoram. 2018. The Virtue of Nationalism. London, UK: Hachette UK.

Henley, Jon, and Mark Rice-Oxley. 2019. “Europe ‘Coming Apart Before Our Eyes’ Say 30 Top Intellectuals.” The Guardian, January 25. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jan/25/europe-coming-apart-before-our-eyes-say-30-top-intellectuals.

Hodgson, Geoffrey M. 1995. “The Political Economy of Utopia.” Review of Social Economy, 53(2): 195–214. https://www.jstor.org/stable/29769771

Hollis, Martin. 1994. The Philosophy of Social Science: An Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Hudson, Michael. 2015. Killing the Host: How financial parasites and debt bondage destroy the Global Economy. Dresden, Germany: ISLET.

______. 2021. “Finance Capitalism Versus Industrial Capitalism: The Rentier Resurgence and Takeover.” Review of Radical Political Economics, 53(4): 557–573. https://doi.org/10.1177/04866134211011770

______. 2022. The Destiny of Civilization: Finance Capitalism, Industrial Capitalism Or Socialism. Dresden, Germany: ISLET.

Huntington, Samuel P. 1993. “‘If Not Civilizations, What?’ Samuel Huntington Responds to His Critics.” Foreign Affairs, 72(5): 186–196.

______. 1996. “The West Unique, not Universal.” Foreign Affairs, 75(6): 28–46.

______. 2007. “The Clash of Civilizations Revisited.” New Perspectives Quarterly, 24(1): 53–59.

______. 2011. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.

______. 2004. Who Are We?: The Challenges to America’s National Identity. New York: Simon and Schuster.

International Criminal Court. Home Page. https://www.icc-cpi.int/.

Jaggar, Alison. 1983. Feminist Politics and Human Nature. London, UK: Rowman & Littlefield.

Jessop, Bob. 2019. “Authoritarian Neoliberalism: Periodization and Critique.” South Atlantic Quarterly, 118(2): 343–361. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-7381182

Johnston, B.V. 1996. “Pitirim A. Sorokin (1889–1968): Pioneer and Pariah.” International Sociology, 11(2): 229–238.

Jones, Daniel Stedman. 2014. Masters of the Universe: Hayek, Friedman, and the Birth of Neoliberal Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kellner, Douglas. 2018. Television and the Crisis of Democracy. London, UK: Routledge.

Kristensen, Nete N. 2018. “Churnalism, Cultural (Inter)Mediation And Sourcing in Cultural Journalism.” Journalism Studies, 19(14): 2168–2186. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2017.1330666

Krzysztofek, K., 2000. “Global Culture and Global Governance: Is There Such a thing as Geoculture”. Political Quarterly and International Affairs, 9: 67–86.

Kwak, James. 2018. Economism: Bad Economics and the Rise of Inequality. London, UK: Vintage.

Lakoff, George. 2014. The All New Don't Think of an Elephant!: Know Your Values and Frame the Debate. New York: Chelsea Green Publishing.

Lee, Richard E. 2011. “The Modern World-System.” Pp. 27–40 in Immanuel Wallerstein and the Problem of the World: System, Scale, Culture, edited by David Palumbo-Liu, Bruce Robbins, and Nirvana Tanoukhi. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Levenshus, Abbey Blake. 2010. “Online Relationship Management in a Presidential Campaign: A Case Study of the Obama Campaign's Management of Its Internet-Integrated Grassroots Effort.” Journal of Public Relations Research, 22(3): 313–335. DOI:10.1080/10627261003614419

Lewis, Geoffrey. 2002. “Quintin McGarel Hogg, Lord Hailsham of St Marylebone. 9 October 1907–12 October 2001.” Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, (48): 221–231. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3650257

Lewis, Justin Matthew Wren, Andy Williams, and Robert Arthur Franklin. 2008. “A Compromised Fourth Estate? UK News Journalism, Public Relations and News Sources.” Journalism Studies, 9(1): 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616700701767974

Littler, Jo. 2004. “Celebrity and ‘Meritocracy’.” Soundings: A Journal of Politics and Culture, 26: 118–130. https://openaccess.city.ac.uk/id/eprint/6017/

______. 2017. Against Meritocracy: Culture, Power and Myths of Mobility. London, UK: Taylor & Francis.

Mann, Michael. 1986. The Sources of Social Power: Volume 1 A History of Power from the Beginning to AD 1760, Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mannheim, Karl. 2013. Ideology and Utopia. London, UK: Routledge.

Marzouki, Nadia, Duncan McDonnell, and Olivier Roy, eds. 2016. Saving the People: How Populists Hijack Religion. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Maynes, Charles William. 1990. “America Without the Cold War.” Foreign Policy, 78: 3–25.

McMahon, Robert J., ed. 2013. The Cold War In The Third World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Mendes, Philip. 2003. “Australian Neoliberal Think Tanks and the Backlash against the Welfare State.” Journal of Australian Political Economy, (51): 29–56.

von Mises, Ludwig. 1972. The Anti-Capitalistic Mentality. Auburn, NY: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

______. 1985a. Theory and History. Auburn, NY: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

______. 1985b. Liberalism. Auburn, NY: Ludwig von Mises Institute.

______. 2012. Nation, State, and Economy. Carmel, IN: Liberty Fund.

Oren, Tami, and Mark Blyth. 2019. “From Big Bang to Big Crash: The Early Origins of the UK’s Finance-led Growth Model and the Persistence of Bad Policy Ideas.” New Political Economy, 24(5): 605–622. https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2018.1473355

Palumbo-Liu, David, Bruce Robbins, and Nirvana Tanoukhi. 2011. Immanuel Wallerstein and the Problem of the World: System, Scale, Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Panitch, Leo, and Greg Albo. 2015. The Politics of the Right: Socialist Register 2016. New York: New York University Press.

Pearson, Linda. 2015. “US War Crimes and the ICC”. In The WikiLeaks Files: the World According to US Empire, edited by Julian Assange. London, UK: Verso Books.

Pelz, William A. 2016. A People's History of Modern Europe. London, UK: Pluto Press.

Piketty, Thomas. 2013. Capital in the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Plant, Raymond. 1991. Modern Political Thought. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.

______. 2010. The Neo-Liberal State. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Quinton, Anthony, ed. 1967. Political Philosophy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Robbins, Bruce. 2011. “Blaming the System.” Pp. 41–64 in Immanuel Wallerstein and the Problem of the World: System, Scale, Culture, edited by David Palumbo-Liu, Bruce Robbins, and Nirvana Tanoukhi. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Robinson, William I. 2011. “Globalization and the Sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein: A Critical Appraisal.” International Sociology, 26(6): 723–745. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580910393372

Ross, Alexander Reid. 2017. Against the Fascist Creep. Edinburgh, UK: AK Press.

Rydgren, Jess. 2017. “Radical Right-Wing Parties in Europe: What’s Populism Got to do with It?” Journal of Language and Politics, 16(4): 485–496. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.17024.ryd

Salter, Mark B. 2003. “The Clash of Civilisations and the War on Terror(ists): An Imperialist Discourse.” Global Dialogue 5(1/2): 116–125.

Sayer, Andrew. 2009. “Who’s Afraid of Critical Social Science?” Current Sociology, 57(6): 767–786. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392109342205

Scheidler, Fabian. 2020. The End of The Megamachine: A Brief History of a Failing Civilization. London, UK: John Hunt Publishing.

Schulman, Alex. 2012. “Carl Schmitt and the clash of civilizations: the missing context.” Journal of Political Ideologies, 17(2):147–167.

Slobodian, Quinn. 2018. Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Smith, Jackie. 2005. “Response to Wallerstein: The Struggle for Global Society in a World System.” Social Forces, 83(3): 1279–1285. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3598278

Spragens, Thomas A. 1973. The Dilemma of Contemporary Political Theory: Toward a Postbehavioral Science of Politics. New York: Dunellen.

Stanley, Jason. 2020. How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks.

Taylor, Peter J. 1996. The Way the Modern World Works: World Hegemony to World Impasse. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Townsend, Peter. 2000. “Prisoners of the Global Market: Social Polarisation and the Growth of Poverty.” Pp. 230–252 in Building a World Community: Globalisation and the Common Good, edited by Jacques Baudot. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. 2015. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. New York: Beacon Press.

Vague, Richard. 2019. A Brief History Of Doom: Two Hundred Years of Financial Crises. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Veblen, Thorstein. 2005. Conspicuous Consumption. London, UK: Penguin UK.

Wahlbeck, Kristian, and David McDaid. 2012. “Actions to Alleviate the Mental Health Impact of the Economic Crisis.” World Psychiatry, 11(3): 139–158.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1991. Geopolitics and Geoculture: Essays on the Changing World-System. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

______. 1993. “The Geoculture of Development, or the Transformation of our Geoculture?”. Asian Perspective, 17(2). 211–225.

______. 1995. After Liberalism. New York: W. W. Norton and Co.

______. 1998. “Possible Rationality: A Reply to Archer”. International Sociology, 13(1): 19–21.

______. 2000a. The Essential Wallerstein. New York: New Press.

______. 2000b “The Development of an Intellectual Position.” Adapted version of the introductory essay to The Essential Wallerstein, blog. December 16. https://iwallerstein.com/intellectual-itinerary/

______. 2002. “The Eagle Has Crash Landed.” Foreign Policy, 131: 60–80.

______. 2004. World-Systems Analysis. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

______. 2011. The Modern World-System IV: Centrist Liberalism Triumphant, 1789–1914 . Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Wallerstein, Immanuel, Charles Lemert, and Carlos Aguirre Rojas. 2015. Uncertain Worlds: World-Systems Analysis in Changing Times. London, UK: Routledge.

Weinstein, Barbara. 2005. “History Without a Cause? Grand Narratives, World History, and the Postcolonial Dilemma.” International Review of Social History, 50(1): 71–93. https://www.jstor.org/stable/44582873

Waltz, Kenneth N. 1959. Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ward, Colin. 2018. Anarchy in Action. Oakland, CA: PM Press.

Wilkin, Peter. 2021. Fear of a Yellow Planet: The Gilets Jaunes and the end of the World: The Gilets Jaunes and the Battle for the Future of France. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Winter, Tim. 2019. Geocultural Power: China's Quest to Revive the Silk Roads for the Twenty-First Century. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

______. 2021. “Geocultural power: China’s Belt and Road Initiative.” Geopolitics, 26(5): 1376–1399.

______. 2022. “Geocultural Diplomacy”. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 28(4): 385–399.

Wodak, Ruth. 2015. The Politics of Fear: What Right-Wing Populist Discourses Mean. London, UK: Sage.

______. 2021. “From Post-Truth to Post-Shame: Analyzing Far-Right Populist Rhetoric.” Pp. 175–192 in Approaches to Discourse Analysis, edited by Cynthia Gordon. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Wolf, Martin. 2004. Why Globalization Works. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Wolin, Sheldon. 2017. Democracy Incorporated. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.




How to Cite

Wilkin, P. (2023). Every Day I Write the Book: Geoculture as Dominant Ideology in the Twenty-First Century . Journal of World-Systems Research, 29(2), 377–400. https://doi.org/10.5195/jwsr.2023.1190